FAQs: popular 20th century American foods.....Have questions?
...we make food history fun...
Determine your focus
---1980s formal dinner? 1960s backyard barbecue? 1950s Vegas resort extraganza? 1940s teen party? 1920s Gatsby speakeasy evening? Victorian garden party?
Decide if you want to feature local fare
---1900s Texas chili parlors? 1930s Chicago soup kitchens? 1970s California cuisine? 1990s Seattle cafes?
- If you think it's best to stick with "signature" decade foods everyone will recognize, start here:
Fashionable Foods: Seven Decades of Food Fads, Sylvia Lovegren [McMillan:NewYork] 1999
---excellent for social context, commentary, & selected recipes: 1920s-1980s
Century in Food: America's Fads and Favorites, Beverly Bundy [Collector Press:Portland] 2002
---good for popular fads & brands
The Food Chronology, James L. Trager
---new food introductions, restaurant openings, cookbooks, technological advancements & company news
- Leite's Culinaria
If you want to identify period recipes, menus, table settings & decorations
This is the fun part! It's also time-consuming and labor-intensive. You need primary resources. These are:
The librarians at your local public library can help you with this. Use the subject headings "menus" "meals" and "dining" to locate articles printed in popular magazines such as the Ladies Home Journal, Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, American Home, Better Homes and Gardens, and Southern Living. Your librarian can help you obtain the articles you need. Even better? Find a library that owns these magazines for the decade you want. Browse them for recipes, food ads, table decorations, and party tips. Local newspapers Did your local newspaper run a food column that decade? If so? Perfect. Most included recipes. Restaurant menus Use the & digital menu collections to identify what was served in all types of restaurants during the decade in question. If you need menus from a specific place and time (1900 Atlantic City? 1945 Nashville?) or menus for specific type of restaurant (Railroad dining car? Harvey House? Drive-in movie?) we can help you find dedicated books, museums and historic societies.
1900s: Victorian traditions startled by American technology
Food in the USA 1900-1910
During the early decades of the 20th century, Americans foods reflected the great diversity of people living in our country. What people ate depended primarily upon who they were (ethnic heritage, religious traditions), where they lived (regional food preferences: New Orleans Creole, New England founding father?) and how much money they had (wealthy railroad tycoon? immigrant street peddler?). Food manufacturers flooded our markets with new "covenience" foods, such as Jell-O.
Factors affecting Americans cuisine 1900-1910
Waves of immigrants introduced new foods and flavors. Most immigrants settled in urban areas, many opened restaurants and imported foods. The first Italian-style opened in New York City 1905.
2. Science & Technology
Advances in transportation, food preservation, and home storage began to equalize local food availability and lessen dependence upon seasonal variations. Electricity was introduced to homes beginning with urban areas. Electric appliances (refrigerators, stoves) were introduced but not generally found in homes until the 1930s. About
3. Home Economics & Nutrition Science
The Home Economics movement of the late 19th century continued full-force in the 20th. College women studied the science of cookery and applied their knowledge to improving the nutrition and health of their families. Some of these women became social workers who advocated for the poor. They established soup kitchens and classes for new immigrants and low-income homemakers. Many visited tenement homes and worked one-on-one with families. Social workers/nutrition experts taught their students practical skills regarding cooking safety, sanitation, nutrition, and marketing. About .
New products flooded the American markets. Corporate giants such as the National Biscuit Company (Nabisco), Campbells, Swift, General Mills, Quaker Oats, Kraft, Jell-O, and Hershey's provided products, "invented" recipes and created a steady demand for a wider variety of foods.
5. Government intervention
Breakfast Melons, sago, vegetable hash, broiled veal cutlets, fried tomatoes, coffee. Dinner Broiled prairie chicken, baked sweet potatoes, green corn, cauliflower, plum sauce, cabbage salad, peach pyramid, ice cream, coffee. Lunch Sliced ham, biscuit, baked pears, cake, tea.
Breakfast Cream toast and fruit, prairie chicken stewed, fried potatoes sliced tomatoes, coffee. Dinner Roast beef, potaotes, green corn, egg plant, succotash, watermelon, cake, cheese, wafers, and coffee. Supper Cold sliced beef, French potatoes baked apples, cake and tea.
Breakfast Fruit, hominy, buttered toast with hash, corn fritters, cookies, and coffee. Dinner Soup, vegetable, chicken pie potatoes, Lima beans, onions, slaw, baked custard, cake, oranges, nuts and coffee. Supper Rolls, dried beef, sliced tomatoes, peaches and cream, cake and tea.
Breakfast Fruit, rice, Sally Lunn, broiled chickens, cucumbers, coffee. Dinner Boiled beef with potatoes, turnips, geeen corn, pickled beets, apple pie, fresh fruits, cake, nuts, coffee. Supper Biscuit, sliced beef, sliced toamtoes, grapes and peaches, cake, tea.
Breakfast Fruit, sago, hot muffins, fried chicken and fried cabbage, jelly, tea. Dinner pea soup, veal pot pie, Lima beans, carrots, corn, peach meringue, cake, fresh fruits, coffee. Supper Vienna rolls, pressed chicken, currant jelly, baked apples, cake, tea.
Breakfast Fruit and oatmeal, broiled ham, poached eggs on toast, cucumbers, coffee. Dinner Baked fish, boiled potatoes, baked onions, egg plant, cabbage salad, ice cream, peaches, grapes, nuts, coffee. Supper Cold tongue, soda biscuit and hominy, sliced tomatoes, fruit cake and tea.
Breakfast Nutmeg melons, sago, broiled mutton chops, fried potatoes, crurant jelly, coffee. Dinner Soup, roast pork, apple sauce, mashed potatoes, creamed cabbage, stewed corn, beet pickles, peach cake with whipped cream, cheese, wafers, coffee. Supper Sliced pork, tea rolls, banana fritters, fruit cake and tea."
---Woman's Exchange Cook Book, Mrs. Minnie Palmer [W.B. Conkey:Chicago] 1901 (p. 505-506)
[What is ?]
"Menus for a Week in in the Spring
Breakfast Grape Fruit, Cereal, French Omelet, Rice Cakes, Maple Syrup, Coffee. Dinner Oysters on the Half Shell, Olives, Radishes, Roast Veal with Dressing, Mashed Potatoes, Fried Egg Plant, Edive Salad, Rhubarb Pie, Cheese, Black Coffee. Supper Baked Bean Salad, Devilled Eggs, Whole Wheat Bread and Butter, Lady Baltimore Cake, Custard, Tea.
Breakfast Cereal Cooked with Dates, Scrambled Eggs with Parsley, Creamed Potatoes, Toast, Coffee. Luncheon Potato Cakes, Cold Veal, Corn Bread, Cookies, Orange Marmalade, Tea. Dinner Cream of Potato Soup, Broiled Steak with Parsley Butter, Baked Potatoes, Asparagus on Toast, Young Beets and Beet Green Salad, Poor Man's Pudding.
Breakfast Oranges, Cereal, Finnan Haddie, Watercress, Popovers, Coffee. Luncheon Veal Olives, Baked Potaotes, Boiled Rice, Maple Syrup, Tea. Dinner Tomato Soup, Olives, Gherkins, Braised Veal Cutlets with Currant Jelly, Parsnip Fritters, Sweet Potatoes, Asparagus Salad, Sliced Pineapple, Cake, Coffee.
Breakfast Evaporated Apple Sauce, Cereal, French Olive, Wheat Muffins, Coffee. Luncheon Clam Chowder, Brown Bread and Butter, Pickles, Gingerbread, Tea. Dinner Cream of Asparagus Soup, Filet of Flounder, New Potatoes with Parsley Butter, Stewed Tomaotes, Lettuce Salad, Cottage Pudding, Coffee.
Breakfast Oranges, Cereal, Eggs a la Caracus, Rice Cakes, Coffee. Luncheon Hamburger Stead, Baked Potatoes, Lettuce with French Dressing, Raisin Cake, Baked Rhubarb, Tea. Dinner Vermicelli Soup, Radishes, Pickles, Pork and Parsnip Stew, Pineapple Shortcake with whipped Cream, Black Coffee.
Breakfast Evaoprated Apricots, Stewed, Cereal, Broiled Mackerel, Watercress, Wheat Muffins, Coffee. Luncheon Creamed Codfish, Boiled Potatoes, Pickles, Apple Sauce, Cake, Tea. Dinner Cream of Celery Soup, Broiled Shad, Creamed Potatoes, Oyster Plant, Endive Salad, tapiocal Pudding with Meringue, Coffee.
Breakfast Bananas and Oranges, Cereal, Ham and Eggs, Graham Gemn, Coffee. Luncheon Frizzled Beef, Cream Toast, Currant Tarts, tea. Dinner Split Pea Soup with Croutons, Pickles, Pot Roast of beef, Browned Potatoes, Creamed Turnips and Peas, Lettuce with French Dressing, Cabinet Pudding, Black Coffee."
---New York Evening Telegram Cook Book, Emma Paddock Telford [Cupples & Leon:New York] 1908 (p. 207-209)
uploaded by the Los Angeles Public Library to identify period menus [Search date 190]. Recommended reading: Repast: Dining Out at the Dawn of the New American Century, 1900-1910/ Michael Lesy and Lis Stoffer.
Worth noting: launched in Philly 1902 & the first American opens in NYC. It won't however, be until after World War II decades that mainstream Americans embrace this ethnic specialty. cater to businessmen.
- 1901 , Buffalo NY
1904 , St. Louis
Americans are fascinated with fair food, especially the items attributed to the 1904 St. Louis Exposition. The truth? Most of the foods attributed to this fair existed long before 1904. What these foods have in common is that they were mass marketed at the St. Louis fair. That is why 1904 holds a special place in the American gastronomic chronology. Foods commonly associated with the this fair are: ice cream cones, hamburgers, puffed rice, Dr. Pepper, iced tea, Texas-style chili, & peanut butter. Recommended reading: Beyond the Ice Cream Cone: The Whole Scoop on Food at the 1904 World's Fair/Pamela J. Vaccaro.
1900 Wesson Oil, Hershey bars, Hills Bros coffee
1901 Cliquot Club Ginger Ale, White Rose Ceylon Tea, NECCO Wafers (candy)
1902 , Presto self-rising cake flour, Salada Tea, , NECCO Conversation Hearts
1904 , Swans Down Cake Flour, Campbell's Pork & Beans, Frnech's Cream Salad Mustard, Dr. Pepper
1905 Heinz Baked Beans, Hebrew National frankfurters, Royal Crown Cola, Ovomaltine (renamed )
1906 Planters Nuts, Hot dogs (name, not the actual food), Post Toasties, A-1 Sauce, hot fudge sundaes,
1907 LeSeur peas, Hershey Kisses, Canada Dry Pale Dry Ginger Ale
1908 Tea bags, French Dip sandwich, Hershey bars with almonds
1909 Melitta drip coffeemaker, Idaho Spud Bar (candy)
SOURCES: The Food Chronology/James L. Trager [Holt:New York] 1995, The Century in Food: America's Fads and Favorites/Beverly Bundy [Collectors Press:Portland OR] 2002 & Candy: The Sweet History/Beth Kimmerle [Collector's Press:Portland OR] 2003
Advertised in the Washington Post, January 7, 1900:
Pillsbury's Best Flour, Atmore's Plum Pudding, Mrs. Well's Tomato Ketchup, Eagle Brand Condensed Milk, Uneeda Biscuits (National Biscuit Company), Campbell's soup, White House coffee, Colman's English Mustard (genuine)
Advertised in ,1902: mail order groceries
Advertised in the Washington Post, July 2, 1905:
Borden's Evaporated Cream, Armour's Potted Ham and Tongue, Quaker Oats, Armour's Corned Beef
Advertised in the Washington Post, December 26, 1909:
Jello, Marshall's Kippered Herring, Senate Brand Coffee, Swift's Premium Hams, Eagle Milk (can), Royal Baking Powder, Rumford Baking Powder, Davis' Baking Powder, Lowney's Cocoa, A & P Jams, Fig Newtons (National Biscuit Company), Minute Tapioca, Campbell's soups, Nonesuch Mincemeat, Heinz's Best Quality Mincemeat, Hecker's Buckwheat, Hornby's (H-O) Buckwheat B&O Molasses
1910s: Opulent dining, Melting pot possibilities, & Great War rationing
About the 1910s in America:
What people eat in all times and places depends upon who they are (ethnic, religious heritage), where they live (urban centers, rural outposts) and how much money they have (rich have more choices than poor). Which means? In the USA during the 1910s newly immigrated Italian families ate very different food from South Carolina plantation owners, West Virginia coal miners, Chicago businessmen and San Francisco Chinese.
World War I had an interesting affect on American food. Some major points for consideration.
- During the World War I the country was in a severe economic depression which affected food availability. So did the need to feed soldiers. Most folks are familiar with rationing during WWII. It also happened during the first World War.
- While immigrants and returning soldiers introduced new foods to America, they were not celebrated/accepted like they were after WWII. The 1910s was a period of social homogenization (aka melting pot). Social workers and domestic scientists worked hard to Americanize the "foreign-born."
- Commercial food manufacturers flourished. Products were promoted to American housewives as modern, sanitary and economical. Most middle class Americans bought into this idea, and distanced themselves from "grandma's" ways. Self-serve supermarkets were introduced.
- Effect on world cuisine might be the influence of American food companies/products and new technology. Advances in transportation & technology permitted a greater number of foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, meats &c.) to be shared.
Notes from U.S. Army archives: & . . , Great War Society (modernized recipes with historical commentary) Compare with .
Tea sandwiches: white or wheat bread, thin slice, no crust, cut in fancy shapes or rolled sandwiches.
Fillings: meat salads (ham, chicken, tuna), jam/jelly, flavored butters, cream cheese.
Sponge cake (orange, lemon), chocolate cake, &
Fudge, caramels, taffy (salt-water or regular ok), popcorn balls, jelly beans
Coca cola (bottles), coffee, tea, iced tea, lemonade, fruit punch (ginger ale based)
Popular American snacks: Oreos, Lorna Doons, Animal Crackers, Fig Newtons, & Cracker Jack. Peppermint Life Savers were introduced in 1913.
"Luncheon No. 1: Beef Bouillon, Fillet of Beef, Squabs, Artichoke, Potato Balls, Grape Fruit Salad with Pimentos, Lettuce, Mayonnaise, Roquefort Cheese, Fresh Strawberry Ice Cream, Angel Cake." (p. 264)
"Luncheon No. 2: Tomato Boulioon, Broiled Beef Balls, Tomato Sauce, Carrots, Creamed Potatoes, Cabbage Salad, Tea Biscuits, Eggless Cake, Jelly, Whipped Cream." (p. 264)
"Harmony Luncheon: Chilled Fruit, Clam Boullion with Whipped Cream, Cheesed Crab Flakes en Coquilles, Chicken a la maryland with String Beans, Haricot Vert au Buerre and Asparagus Tips, Salad, Whole Apples stuffed with nuts and Celery with Mayonnaise, Prune Whip, Coffee." (p. 345)
"Luncheon: Clam Bisque in Cups, Chicken Souffle, Potatoes au Gratin, Tomatoes and Lettuce Salad Cream Cheese Balls, French Dressing, Lemon Sherbet, Chocolate with Whipped Cream, Popovers, Ripe Olives." (p. 268)
"Cheese Menu No. 2: Cheese Fondue, Toast, Zweiback, or Thin Crisp Baking Powder Biscuits, Celery, Potatoes, Baked or or Fried in Deep Fat, Peas, or some other Fresh Vegetable, Coffee, Fruit Salad with Crisp Cookies or Meringues." (p. 472)
"Luncheon: Consomme, Chicken Patties, Cold Sliced Ham, Creamed Potatoes, Endive Salad, Chocolate Pudding, Lady Fingers, Tea." (p. 289)
"Luncheon: Creamed Chicken and Mushrooms, Baked Potatoes, Cream Slaw, Parker House Rolls, Coffee or Tea, Raspberry Jam, Radishes." (p. 60)
"Spring Luncheon: Clear Soup, Lobster Salad, Breaded Lamb Chops, Green Peas, Frozen Punch or Fruit." (p. 65)
"Buffet Luncheon: Grape Fruit Cocktail, Creamed Brains, Mushrooms in Timbales, Green Peas, Aspic with Mayonnaise, Ham Roll and Pickled Gherkins, Finger Rolls, Chicken Salad on Lettuce Leaf, Wafers, Angel Parfait, Fruit Cake, Coffee." (p. 136)
"February Luncheon: Fruit Cup, Bouillon, with Cheese Straws, Stuffed Squabs, Currant Jelly, Tomato and Rice en Coquilles, Hot Rolls, Celery Hearts, Watermelon Preserves, Salad with Cheese Crackers, Meringue Glaces (Individual), Coffee, Apricot Liquor, Candy Ginger." (p. 97)
Lunch: Cream Celery Soup, Cold Sliced Beef or Lamb, Lettuce, Corn on Cob, Baked Irish Potatoes, Fruit Salad, Cold Beaten Biscuits, Pudding, Milk or Tea." (p. 128)
Luncheon: Fish Croquettes, Creamed Potatoes, Water Cress, Cold Bread, Steamed Apples, Tea or Cocoa." (p. 175)
Authentic period mixology text, published in St. Louis, 1917 contains most of the cocktails served by Mrs. Walsh. Coincidence? /Thomas Bullock
 /Artemas Ward (food varieties, packaging &c., no brand names)
 popular USA brands still available today (perfect for a birthday/anniversary celebration basket!): Oreos , Coca Cola (bottles), Campbell's soups (tomato, chicken noodle, NOT cream of mushroom), Underwood Deviled Ham, Junket, Jell-O, Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Nabisco's Animal Crackers (in the fancy little box decorated with zoo animals), Hershey Bars, Fig Newtons, Heinz Ketchup, Gulden's Mustard, Graham Crackers, Philadelphia Cream Cheese, Quaker Oats C & C Club Soda, Hires Root Beer, Pillsbury Flour, Hershey's Cocoa, Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce, Wrigley's gum (peppermint), Good & Plenty, & Cracker Jacks.
 Battle Creek, Mich., plans produce cornflakes under 108 brand names, but Kellogg's and Post Toasties lead the pack, Crisco, introduced in the spring by Cincinnati's Protor & Gamble, is the first solid hydrogenated vegetable shortening, Mazola salad and cooking oil--the first corn oil available for home consumption is introduced by E.T. Bedford's Corn Products Refining Company, Domino brand sugar is introduced by American Sugar Refining Co., the first canned chili con carne and tamales are produced in San Antonio, Tex. by William Gebhardt.
 First self-service grocery stores open independently in California, California Associated Raisin Co (later renamed Sun-Maid) starts, California Walnut Growers (later renamed Diamond Walnut Growers) starts, Ocean Spray Cranberry Sauce is introduced by the Cape Cod Cannery Co., Morton's Table Salt is introduced, Hellmann's Blue Ribbon Mayonnaise is introduced by German-American New York delicatessen owner Richard Hellmann, Prince Macaroni Co. launched, Oreo Biscuits & Lorna Doon cookies introduced by National Biscuit Company, Whitman Sampler introduced by Philadelphia's Whitman Chocolate Company, Royal Crown Ginger Ale introduced
 Quaker's Puffed Rice and Quaker's Puffed Wheat introduced, Peppermint Life Savers introduced by Cleveland, Ohio, chocolate manufacturer Clarence Crane
- First electric refrigeration is introduced for commercial use, but it's not until after World War I that the miracle machines are widely avaliable.
- Campbell's promotes its soups as recipe ingredients to help much-burdened homemakers.
- Lettuce, asparagus, watermelons, cantaloupes, and tomates grown in California's irrigated fields are transported 3,000 miles away in refrigerated railcars
- George Washington Carver's experiments prove the value of peanuts and sweet potatoes in replenishing fertility.
- The Reuben sandwich is created at Reuben's Restaurant in New York City ().
- Tasty Baking Co., is founded at Philadelphia....and idea which...might revolutionize bakery retailing: individual-size cakes prewrapped at the bakery instead of cakes baked in slabs which storekeepers had to handle.
- Large-scale pasta production begins in the United States, which has imported almost all of its macaroni and spaghetti from Naples but which has been cut off from Italian sources by the outbreak of the European war. Italian-American pasta maker Vincent La Rosa and his five sons start a company at Brooklyn, NY.
- Brooklyn-born trader Clarence "Bob" Birdseye, 20, pioneers fish freezing.
- Van Camp Seafood is founded by Indianapolis packer Frank Van Camp, whose father, Gilbert, began packing pork and beans in 1861.
- Mary Janes--individually wrapped penny candies that combine molasses with peanut butter--are introduced.
---SOURCES: The Century in Food: America's Fads and Favorites/Beverly Bundy & The Food Chronology/James L. Trager
 Corning introduces Pyrex baking dishes, Cortland apple is created in upstate New York by crossing a Bert Davis with a McIntosh, Kellogg's 40% Bran Flakes are introduced, The Singapore Sling is invented [cocktail]
 Streit's matzohs introduced by New York entrepreneur Aaron Streit, Coca-Cola adopts the distinctive bottle shape that will identify it for years, Nathan's Famous frankfurters established in Coney Island, N.Y.
 French Sardine Co. (later renamed Starkist Seafood) established, Del Monte's canned fruits and vegetables advertised nationally, Clark Bars introduced by Pittsburgh's David L. Clark
 Ronzoni brand pasta founded, Old El Paso brand Mexican foods established in New Mexico
 Fleischmann Co. lauches a national advertising campaign to urge housewives to buy bakery bread instead of baking at home, Eskimo Pie begins as the "I-Scream-Bar," Nestle introduces the Nestle Milk Chocolate Bar
---SOURCES: The Century in Food: America's Fads and Favorites/Beverly Bundy & The Food Chronology/James L. Trager
1920s: Prohibition-era foods &
1920s America was a fascinating time for food. When else would it be possible to juxtapose Prohibition (popular no alcohol sentiment co-existing with underground speakeasies), exotic culinary experimentation (Chinese food was popular), opulent wealth (Delmonicos & 21), extreme poverty (tenement kitchens), social nutrition movements (home economics & Ladies Aid Organizations) and vegetarian alternatives (Dr. George Washington Carver was creating recipes for mock chicken made from peanuts).
What effect did Prohibition on American the food and dining habits in the 1920's?
"When Prohibition went into effect in America on January 16, 1920, it did more than stop the legal sale of alcoholic beverages in our country...[it] increased the production of soft drinks, put hundreds of restaurants and hotels out of business, spurred the growth of tea rooms and cafeterias, and destroyed the last vestiges of fine dining in the United States...Hotels tried to reclaim some of their lost wine and spirit profits by selling candy and soda pop The fruit cocktail cup, often garnished with marshmallows or sprinkled with powdered sugar, took the place of oysters on the half shell with champagne and a dinner party opener....The American wine industry, unable to sell its wines legally, quickly turned its vinyards over to juice grapes. But only a small portion of the juice from the grapes was marketed as juice. Most of it was sold for home-brewed wine. Needless to say, this home brew was not usually a sophisticated viniferous product, but sales of the juice kept many of the vineyards in profits throughout Prohibition. Prohibition also brought about cooking wines and artificially flavored brandy, sherry, and rum extracts. Housewives were advised to omit salt when using cooking wines, as the wines themselves had been salted to make them undrinkable...Some cooks gave up on alcoholic touches, real or faux, altogether...The bad alcohol, the closing of fine restaurants, the sweet foods and drinks that took alcohol's place, the artificial flavors that were used to simulated alcohol, all these things could not help but have a deletrious effect on the American palate."
---Fashionable Foods: Seven Decades of Food Fads, Sylvia Lovgren [MacMillan:New York] 1995 (p. 29-30)
"Prohibition, with its tremendous impact on the eating habits of the country, also had a great deal to do with the introduction of Italian food to the masses. Mary Grosvenor Ellsworth, in Much Depends upon Dinner, (1939), said this about Prohibition and pasta: "We cooked them [pastas] too much, we desecrated them with further additions of flour, we smothered them in baking dishes and store cheese. Prohibition changed all that. The Italians who opened up speakeasies by the thousand were our main recourse in time of trial. Whole hoards of Americans thus got exposed regularly and often to Italian food and got a taste for it. Now we know from experience that properly treated, the past is no insipid potato substitute. The food served in the speakeasies--with Mama doing the cooking and Papa making the wine in the basement--was not quite the same as the food the Italians had eaten in the Old Country. Sicilian cooking was based on austerity...But America was rich, and protein rich country, and the immigrants were happy to add these symbols of wealth to their cooking--and happy that their new American customers liked the result. Meatballs, rich meat sauces, veal cutlets cooked with Parmesean or with lemon, clams stuffed with buttered herbed crumbs, shrimp with wine and garlic, and mozzarella in huge chunks to be eaten as appetizer were all foods of abundance, developed by Italian-Americans..."
---Fashionable Foods (p. 37-8)
What kind of impact did Prohibition have on American cookbooks in the 1920s?
Some continued to list recipes calling for small amounts of beer, wine and liquor as ingredients, others whistfully noted substitutions, still others omitted the ingredient completely. Grape juice is sometimes used instead of wine. There also seems to be an increase in the use of extracts (vanilla, lemon, almond). Extracts are alcohol-based flavorings. We checked several cookbooks for fruitcake and welsh rarebit recipes (these traditionally include small amounts of alcohol). This is what we found:
Every Womans Cook Book, Mrs. Chas. F. Moritz [Cupples & Leon:New York:1926] devotes several pages of its beverage chapter to making wine at home. Here the 1920s cook found instructions for blackberry, strawberrry, grape and cherry wine, sherry, sauterne and plum liquor and home. These wines were generally fermented for 10 days. We have no idea how strong (% alcohol) they would have been. This book also has a recipe for brandied peaches (without brandy), claret punch (with 1/2 gallon of claret wine). (p. 616-619), and Welsh rarebit (1/2 cup cream, ale or beer). (p.631)
The 1923 edition of Fannie Merritt Farmer's The Boston Cooking School Cook Book, lists 2 tablespoons brandy in a recipe for rich coffee cake (p. 637). The President's fruit cake listed in Mrs. Peterson's Simplified Cooking, American School of Home Economics [Chicago, IL] 1926 (p. 185) lists grape juice as an ingredient, no mention of alcohol.
"Brandy used to be a common addition to fruit cakes. The taste cooked out, but it gave richness to the cake, and probably added to the keeping quality. In the recipes here given, cider, lemon juice or other fruit juice is substituted for it."
---Everybody's Cook Book, Isabel Ely Lord [Harcourt Brace:New York] 1924 (p. 139)
"Speakeasy...Also "speak." A term popular during Prohibition to describe an establishment selling illegal alcoholic beverages. In order to gain entrance, you had to speak in a low voice through a small opening in the back door and tell the attendant inside who it was who sent you to the place. The term itself (which dates in print to 1889) may derive from the English "Speak-softly-shop," an underworld term for a smuggler's house where one might get liquor cheaply, its usage in this sense having been traced back to 1823. But with the onset of Prohibition in America, speakeasies sprang up overnight, sometimes in shabby sections of town, but often in the best neighborhoods, and many of these establishments were actually fine restaurants in their own right. New York's "21" club was a speakeasy during this period and had two bars, a dance floor, an orchestra, and diningrooms on two floors...French diplomat Paul Morande, visiting New York for the first time in 1925, reported his experience at a speakeasy: "...the food is almost always poor, the service deplorable."
---The Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 307)
"For one speakeasy with pretensions to any sort of elegance, there were dozens of drab cellar or tenement bars where no money or thought was wasted on decor. When a speakeasy of some standing as a restaurant as well as a bar emerged, such as that well known New York repair, still legitimately flourishing, Jas and Charlie's 21 (sometimes referred to as "The Twenty-One Club," although it never had official club status), it was because discreet official protection had been guaranteed to it which made the investment gilt-edged."
---Eating in America: A History, Waverly Root & Richard de Rochemont [Morrow:New York] 1976 (p. 398)
"Salty hams and pretzels were offered at free lunch counters to whet customers' thirsts"
---American Heritage Cookbook: Illustrated History [American Heritage:New York] 1964 (p. 357)
[NOTE: What was ?]
. How much did these drinks ?
"Mrs. [Esther Ford] Wait is a prohibitionist--that is, she believes in prohibition if it can be enforced. 'But as it can't,' she said, 'I have nothing against a drink or two at bridge parties or serving cocktails to my friends when they come to dine. Justice Ford...cited his daughter as an example of a nice, young modern girl who goes to cocktail parties...'Cocktail drinking an cigarette smoking by women are questions of manners, not morality.'"
---"Boys Need Chaperones Most, Says Mrs. Wait," Washington Post, June 16, 1925 (p. 9)
Two of the best sources for learning about 1920s American restaurant dining are:
- Fashionable Foods: Seven Decades of Food Fads, Sylvia Lovgren [MacMillan:New York] 1995 ("The Twenties," pps.1-40 )---excellent overview of popular foods & fads
- America Eats Out: An Illustrated History of Restaurants, Taverns, Coffee Shops, Speakeasies, and Other Establishments, John Mariani [Morrow:New York] 1992 (p. "Joe Sent Me," pps. 89-103)---includes pictures
If you are trying to recreate the menu/ambiance of a speakeasy on par with the famous ask your librarian to help you find these books:
- 21 : Every Day was New Year's Eve : memoirs of a saloon keeper , H. Peter Kriendler, with H. Paul Jeffers. c1999.
- "21": The Life and Times of New York's Favorite Club, Marilyn Kaytor (includes some menus & recipes)
- 21 Cookbook: recipes and lore from New York's fabled restaurant, Michael Lomomaco with Donne Forsman. c1995.
Use the to identify what was served in all types of restaurants during the 1920s. Search by date (192). Most of these menus are from California, but the food was also served in New York and other major metropolitan areas.
The Waldorf-Astoria, New York City
"With the passing of the war, America settled down to begin an era of onrushing prosperity. But it was also the era of Prohibition. I glance into menus, from 1921 on: Menus for dinners to honor such figures as Charles M. Schwab...Another significant change was evident in this era, as my menus show. The banquets became less sumptuous--more, shall I say, utilitarian? Certainly, the courses had been pared down. For instance, a dinner in February, 1924, for President Coolidge. (Note the "Appolinaris" and "White Rock" but no mention whatever of any wines or liquors.) Here is the menu:
Canape of Anchovies
Cream of Celery with Toasties
Aiguillette of Striped Bass Joinville
Potatoes a la Hollandaise
Medaillon of Spring Lamb, Chasseur
Asparagus Tips au Gratin
Breast of Chicken a la Rose
Waldorf Salad, Mayonnaise
Venetian Ice Cream
Assorted Cakes Coffee
Apollinaris White Rock."
---Waldorf Astoria Cookbook, Ted James and Rosalind Cole [Bramhall House:New York] 1981 (p. 46-7)
and Jell-O molds. Tea sandwiches, fancy salads, and chafing-dish recipes were also "in." City kitchens were wired with electricity meaning foods could be safely refrigerated at home. General Electric (and other companies) published cooking brochures touting frozen foods and safe meat storage.
Conversely? Modern vegetarianism also began the 1920s. Peanuts were promoted as healthy protein alternatives to animal meat. Raw foods were likewise promoted. Ladies Aid Societies and Domestic Scientists worked hard to introduce balanced, nutritional meals to poor, laboring people and help newly arrived immigrants adjust to American markets.
Need recipes & menus?
Mrs. Allen's party menus
A Spring or Summer Company Dinner
Jellied Tomato Cream Bouillion Toasted Crackers
Roast Duck Broiled Potatoes
Carrots and Peas
Radish Roses Salted Almonds
Potato Biscuits Butter
Raspberry Mousse Little Decorated Cakes
[Suggested table decorations: Daffodils, pussywillows, and individual pots of white or yellow crocuses to bear the place cards.]
A Winter Company Dinner
Chicken Soup with Noodles
Crown Roast of Lamb Mashed Potatoes
Entire-Wheat Rolls Butter
Pickled Peaches Celery Hearts
Steamed Marmalade Pudding Hard Sauce
(If desired omit the cocktail and add a salad, as French artichoke canape or Jane Oaker.)
[Suggested table decorations: White narcissi, pink carnations, asparagus fern, and individual old-fashioned bouquets of the two made up with a carnation in the centre surrounded by the narcissi, then with violets.] (p. 874)
Party refreshments may be served buffet style as described for formal afternoon tea. In this case, the menus described for club refreshments may be used. If, however, the party is of such nature as to call for the formal service of a late evening supper, the guests seated at the table, or served buffet style, menus of the following type may be used.
Hot or Jellied Consomme Bread Sticks
Chicken a la King
Cream Cheese Sandwiches Brown Bread Sandwiches
Olives Salted Nuts Candied Ginger
Nuts and Date Salad Mayonnaise
Strawberry Bavarian Cream Little Pound Cakes Russian Wafers
Chicken Broth Whipped Cream Rolls
Crabmeat Croquettes Peas Brown Bread-and-Butter Sandwiches
Jellied Tomato and Pimiento Salad Olives Celery Hearts
Nesselrode Pudding Macaroons
Fruit Cocktail or Strawberries in Halves of Melons
Jellied Tongue Harlequin Salad
Buttered Baking-Powder Biscuits
Olives Salted Nuts
Biscuit Tortoni Angel Cake Squares Bonbons
Iced Coffee" (p. 883-4)
Fannie Farmer's from the Boston Cooking School Cook Book  are almost identical to those offered in her 1923 edition.Buffet supper
Salted nuts, celery, tuna fish a la King, asparagus salad, Russian dressing, ice cream, cake, coffee
Olives, pickles, chicken salad, apple jelly, rice croquettes, ice cream, cake, coffee
Olives, radishes, baked ham sandwiches, potato and celery salad, ice cream, cake, coffee.
Molded/fruited Jello-salads, fruit cocktail, sliced pineapples & bananas (maraschino cherry ok)
Deviled eggs, celery, olives, pickles, salted nuts (almonds, pecans, peanuts, filberts)
Bread sticks, Parker House rolls, saltine-type crackers, potato chips
Caesar salad, Waldorf salad
Finger sandwiches...peanut butter & jelly, ham, turkey, chicken salad, tomato, egg salad, cream cheese
Fried chicken, baked ham
, angel or devil's food cakes, ice cream & chocolate sauce, chocolate pudding. Canned peaches work well.
Soft drinks garnished with fruit & fruit juices (ginger ale with maraschino cherry juice, decorated with cherries), Ginger Ale, Coca-Cola, Kool-Aid, Lemonade, punch, coffee, cocoa & Orange Pekoe tea
Duke Univeristy has uploaded several from the 1920s. They are no longer protected by copyright. You can use these books to download actual recipes and pictures of the product. Check out: Jello, Fleischmann's yeast, (yeast) Minute Tapioca, Junket,Blue Ribbon Malt Extracts, Jelke Good Luck Margarine, Sunshine crackers, Maxwell House coffee,Calumet Baking Powder, Dromedary Products(figs, coconut, grapefruit etc.), and Sunkist fruit(oranges, grapefruits),
, Butterick Publishing Co., 1925. Popular American brands and their histories.
Need to make something simple and interesting for class? We recommend !
, The Food Chronology, James Trager [Henry Holt:New York] 1995 (p. 426-460), The Century in Food, Beverly Bundy [Collectors Press:Portland OR] 2002(p. 68-71) & Candy: The Sweet History, Beth Kimmerle [Collectors Press:Portland OR] 2003 (p. 35)
In times of famine, war, and extreme hardship people have been known to eat things they might not consider during "normal" times. According to the food historians, the Great Depression was not such a period. Why? There was an ample, inexpensive food supply. People struggling to make put food on the table had the option of purchasing lesser grades of meat (chuck instead of sirlion beef), cheaper cuts of animal (heart, brains, feet), and manufactured substitutes (Crisco instead of butter). Folks who needed help were served by private soup kitchens and government programs. These services were in place throughout the country. This was a decade of cutting back; not starvation.
"Though the depression did not have any immediate impact or obvious effects on American cookery--the food sections of popular magazines never mentioned the terrible plight of many of their readers and only occasionally ran a feature on economical meals--still the effects were there, subtle but pervasive...when, and if, Americans did eat out in the 1930s, it was much more likely to be at an inexpensive place, serving familiar, American food, than at a fancy restaurant. And those Americans were much more likely to order coffee or a sweet, inexpensive soft drink rather than unfamiliar and expensive wine to wash down their food. The Depression also changed the way many Americans entertained at home. Except for the upper echelons of society, most families were now maidless, which made grand, formal dinner parties impossible. Instead, hostesses gave luncheons, teas, and cozy Sunday Night Suppers around the chafing dish...The Thirties aslo ushed in an era of women's clubs--whether dedicated to charitable activities, gardening, or the fine art of bridge--perhaps as a reaction to the individualistic Twenties, perhaps as a kind of atavistic huddling together against the harsh realities of the new age. And what was eaten when the clubs got together...was women's food: dainty, light, frothy, sweet, creamy, and decorated...But weren't many Americans starving in the Thirties? Not really. There was hunger, of course, but it was primarily concentrated in the poorest rural areas...And while Dust Bowl housewives might have had to make their bread inside a drawer to keep the drifting dust out, at least there was bread. Relief agencies and make-work jobs helped some of the worst off, and low food prices made everyone except the food companies happier. Sugar prices, too, were low, and in the Thirties Americans consumed more sugar per capita then they have done before or since..."
---Fashionable Food: Seven Decades of Food Fads, Sylvia Lovegren [Macmillan:New York] 1995 (p. 41-44)
"...while the Depression brought bread lines, soup kitchens, hoboes begging for food at middle-class doors, and thousands of hungry families in devastated parts of rural America, starvation was unheard-of. Persistent hunger was more common, but it was localized, affecting mainly marginalized populations who played a small role in politics or the marketplace. After the initial disocation, when local and private relief agencies were bankrupted, enough federal and state resources seem to have been mobilized to provide enough relief and/or jobs to head off serious threats to the nutrition of most of the poor and unemployed, particularly in the cities. In any event, there is no indication, in mortality and other statistics, of an overall deterioration in the health of the nation. Falling food prices seem to have helped. Studies of low-income families in five northern industrial cities during the tough spring of 1933, when the nation's economy was in ruins, presented a bleak but by no means horrendous picture. Those whose incomes were over three dollars per person per week (not a handsome amount) consumed an average of over 3,000 calories per adult male per day. Those with incomes of two to three dollars per person per week still averaged 2,800 calories per adult male per day while only those on the very bottom, the relatively small proportion living on less than two dollars per person, lived near the margin of hunger, averaging 2,470 calories per day. Even in southern mill-towns...the poorer workers still ate better than their counterparts of twenty years earlier. While they did cut back on meat, fowl, fish, and fresh fruit, they still ate adequate amounts of vegetables, fresh and canned...This does not mean that the Depression did not scare Americans. Whether hungry or not, economic hardship was ever-present in most Americans' minds: they either experienced it, feared it, or were concerned about others living through it. But unlike the food crises which used to rack the pre-industrial world, this one took place among food surpluses, not shortages."
---Revolution at the Table: The Transformation of the American Diet, Harvey Levenstein [Oxford University Press:New York] 1988 (p. 196-7)
A survey of 1930s American cookbooks is full recipes that may appear strange/interesting to us today. These were completely "normal" back in those days. We know they were "normal" because the same recipes appear in books published in previous decades. The following recipes were included in Aunt Sammy's Radio Recipes Revised, Bureau of Home Economics, U.S. Department of Agriculture : baked bean sandwiches (mashed to a paste and served on brown bread), beef loaf (aka meatloaf), fresh beef tongue (considered a delicacy!), liver and bacon (favorite from the "Old World"), ox tail stew (a French treat), scalloped cabbage and apples (a German recipe).
, "Today's" kitchens should be colorful workshops arranged for cooking convenience.
"The Kitchen, A Workshop of Color and Charm.The kitchen should be the pleasant room in the house. There is not good reason for the millions of ugly kitchens in the world. Nor is there any good reason for kitchens that look like white tile lunchrooms. In a kitchen that is gay, cozy, and pleasant, half the labor of cooking seems to be eliminated. In many houses that have been restored and kept in memory of another day, the kitchen is a most interesting and delightful room. When a tour of the house has been made and the kitchen is reached, there is always a sigh of pleasure. A sense of comfort and jollity pervades the place. The mellow walls, the lovely old containers for flours and spices, the gay platters, bowls and cups, the gleaming copper, the rocking chairs!...The modern housewife should try to bet her kitchen the same jolly atmosphere, while preserving a convenient arrangement of furnishings and utensils. The best arrangement for labor savings is one where all operations move from left to right: Refrigerator to work table, table to stove, stove to serving table, and to sink...A visit to the kitchen furnishing department of a modern store sets the mind teeming with ideas that will add charm and confidence to your kitchen. Most kitchens can be improved and whether you wish to add the largest or smallest item, ti will be an inspiration to wander through these departments and get new ideas for the present or future shopping. The new iceless refrigerators and new designs in gas and electric ranges are finished now in lovely plain or tiled effects and a variety of colors. Since they are the most important and largest of single items their color will determine your kitchen color scheme to a considerable extent. Kitchen cabinets have so many built-in conveniences they are well worth owning. Both the kitchen and utility type cabinets give space with doors to hide whatever seems unsightly or is 'out of the picture.'...Keep the kitchen workshop free from the confusion of too many things. Both types of such cabinets come in a variety of colors to match your kitchen plan. Utility cabinets may be purchased in separate units and enlarged by adding units as they are needed. The there are the hanging shelves that fit into odd space and make such a difference in the convenient arrangement of your supplies and equipment. They might hold your cook books, for your should collect cook books if you wish to improve your cooking technique--and who doesn't? Cook book collecting is one of the most fascinating hobbies in which a woman can indulge. The floor linoleum should be considered as an essential part of your kitchen color scheme. There is a wide variety in this field and the modern oil cloth that is useful to cover some shabby shelf or table also comes in patterns that are charming and beautiful. Shelving in string or delicate colors and edging is another intriguing item of kitchen furnishing. The shelf edgings are made also in attractive paper designs. The modern gleaming metal ware kitchen utensils are works of art in design and finish. Enamel ware comes in a variety of colors. The color and shapes of waffle pitchers, sets of mixing bowls, containers for dry groceries and spices in metal and glazes are painted tin are varied enough to suit every person's artistic instinct. Remember that the several metals and enamel finishes as well as glass and china are each suited best to certain uses. One must not lose sight of utility while satisfying the desire for color and charm...The size of the kitchen has nothing to do with its charm. My own kitchen is a small one, but it is so pleasing to me that I never enter it without a glow of satisfaction. At the window hangs a gay India print in which blue predominates. Shelves of assorted sizes are everywhere. Their edges are painted lacquer red. On the broad shelves are gayly patterned serving platters, tureens, colored glass dishes, fat casseroles, blue and amber drinking glasses and pitchers. Jolly flasks of Venetian glass contain vinegar and oil. Keeping these in the kitchen saves many steps...The tiniest set of shelves holds the spices and colors for decorating and garnishing. Blooming plants line the window sill. Several decorative trays hang on the walls...Above my stove I have hung a mirror in a green and gold frame. It reflects the jolly kitchen as well as the cook. A cook should consult a mirror often. For what use is a decorative kitchen without a decorative woman in it!"
---Bamberger's Cook Book For The Busy Woman, Mabel Claire [Greenberg:New York] 1932 (p. 18-21)
"'Shortcut Cookery,' by Mabel Claire (Greenberg). This is not only a list of recipes, but the reflection of a state of mind. 'Powder your nose' is the author's last word in the instructions for preparing an appetizing dinner. 'The woman who serves roast bride with the roast lamb is not a thoroughly successful wife.' Flippant? Not at all. Efficient? Efficient and decorative. The parboiled housewife, martyred , breathless, exasperated, has gone out. If not, this book will help to hurry her out. It contains exceedingly useful pages of half-time methods for getting full-time results. Economical, too: long hours of cooking destroy food values, use too much gas. There is something essentially modern in the point of view, especially in the chapter on kitchen aesthetics. The description of the brave and gallant kitchen with its gaily patterned honey jars, and shelves with edges painted lacquer red--the kitchen of a woman with wit enough to enjoy cooking as well as wit enough to understand it. One finds oneself mentally tagging at her heels, fascinated, enthralled, as she darts about, putting dabs of green angelica on lemon foam puddings, red cinnamon candies on cooked apples. Oh yes, it is distinctly decorative cooking. 'All of these are the things that make a cook into an artist.'..."
---"Aesthetic Cookery: A Book That Is Not Only a Cook Book, But a Creed Too," Manitoba Free Press [Winnipeg CA], November 7, 1927, Literary and Book Review Section (p.1)
"When artist writes a book of recipes it indicates two things. The first is that the meals will be colorful and interesting, and the second, that being a sculptor and still finding time to write such a volume, the author's cooking as been very carefully organized to achieve the maximum results in a minimum of time. Therefore, we are not surprised to read the title of the book by Mabel Claire, 'The Busy Woman's Cook Book, or Cooking by the Clock.' (New York:Greenberg, Inc. .50). The chapter titles give an idea of the manner in which the author has systematized the business of meals...With each menu is given a shopping list containing everything needed for the meal... Below these lists the author gives directions for each according to its place in the schedule of 15, 20 or 30 minutes, and it is this scheduling that makes the book a particular value to the inexperienced cook...Mabel Claire is one of those whom the world delights to dub 'modern women' although she says was born just long enough ago to be an old-fashioned girl, which is to say that she learned to cook and bake as well as to model clay and hammer brass. She always wanted to be a sculptor but she put it off until after she was married. She came to New York seven years ago and studied sculpture at the Art Students' League under Caldwell and Leo Lentelli. Miss Claire found that it costs money to study art, and to solve the money problem, she began modeling add little ink wells and utility jars and boxes which she sold in the small gift shops of Greenwich Village. As she progressed in her work, she evolved a family of wax candles in the form of Mother Goose characters. She christened her work the Candlestick Family, protected by copyright, put it in the hands of a national sales organization and then found she had to organize herself into a factory that could turn out in bulk the amusing little handmade people. When her business interfered with her being a housewife, her friends began to tell her that the easiest thing was to give up housekeeping, but Miss Claire believed that two people can remain much happier if the dine pleasantly at home...So she searched out the ways in which her household duties could be shortened. Her friends copied her methods and borrowed her menus, until Miss Claire decided to add to her duties as housewife, manufacturer and artist those of an author."
---"Woman Sculptor Writes Book of Unusual Recipes," Freeport Journal-Press [IL], September 12, 1925 (p. 8)
"Mrs. Jack Bechdolt of the Hotel Margaret, Brooklyn, known as a writer under the pen name Mabel Claire, died in a Manhattan hospital on Thursday at the age of 43. Mrs. Bechdolt recently returned home from the hospital where she had long been a patient. Her condition grew worse on Thursday and she was returned to the institution shortly before her death. Mrs. Bechdolt was born in Aberdeen, Wash., a daughter C.J. Glasier, Superintendent of Schools there. She was the author of a book on domestic science, a contributor to women's magazines, and also was known as a sculptor and water-color artist. She is survived by her husband, also a writer."
---"Mrs. Jack Bechdolt, Author, Dead at 43.," New York Times, July 29, 1933 (p. 11)
1930s soup kitchens were run/funded by charitable organizations: religious groups, Ladies Aid Societies, Salvation Army etc. community service groups, government agencies, companies, organized crime and private individuals. They relied on volunteers and donations. Depression-era Brooklyn soup kitchens most likely served different food from those in Cleveland, Houston and Bakersfield. This would have reflected the local tastes and available produce. Many other countries experienced Depression circumstances during the 1930s...their soup kitchen menus could have been altogether different.
During the Depression (same as today) food/soup kitchen cooks were experts at maximizing whatever they had on hand to serve that night. What they served, and how they served it, depended upon the facility (how big was the kitchen?), local support (food donations?), and the number of people who needed help (how far to stretch?). Sometimes the best soup kitchens could do was dole out bread and and coffee. Sometimes they could offer other foods (cakes, cookies, casseroles) donated by local charitable organizations, grocery stores or restaurants. More fortunate people where encouraged to grow "charity gardens" so that the soup kitchens could offer fresh fruits and vegetables. The most notorious of American soup kitchens was funded by Al Capone, in Chicago. According to the papers, his consitutents ate better than most.
Food notes from the New York Times:
"Soup kitchens and the missions state that they can always get meat scaps and day-old bread, frequently for nothing and always for very little, but the vegetables that make up the bulk of the soups and stews which they serve are few and far between, and those they can afford are poor and stale. Arrangements are being made to have baskets at the Grand Central and Pennsylvania Station to recieve contributions of fruit and vegetables brough in on trains."
---"Urges Charity Gardens'," New York Times, April 14, 1932 (p. 18)
"Three meals are served each day, including Sundays. Breakfast consists of coffee and a sweet roll, and dinner and supper of soup, bread and coffee, with a second or third helping permitted."
---"Capone Feeds 3,000 a Day in Soup Kitchen," New York Times, November 15, 1930 (p. 4)
"Dozens of jobless men today received food from "soup kitchens" as the city opened temporary commisaries to care for hungry families. Mayor Hoan, a Socialist, ordered the old policy armory kitchen thrown open tomorrow as a municipal kitchen. Temporary headquarters gave bread, milk, cheese and coffee to the hungry today."
---"Milwaukee opens Soup Kitchens'," New York Times, March 6, 1930 (p. 24)
"...families will be supplied with tickets entitling them to soup, and probably bread, every day. The meat and vegetables will be donated by other members of the district, and the funds to operate the kitchen have already been provided."
---"15th A.D. to Install a Soup Kitchen," New York Times, February 21, 1933 (p. 21)
[NOTE: the 15th district was considered a wealthy neighborhood. That it was installing a soup kitchen for its residents was a sad sign of the times.]
About bread lines & food kitchens.
Throughout time, in almost every culture and cuisine, soups and have been the primary foods consumed by people with not much money. It is economical (can be composed of whatever the cook has on hand that day...can be stretched to feed more by adding liquid), simple to cook (one large pot, does not require much in the way of fuel/cooking appliances/utensils), easy to serve (requires only a bowl/cup and a spoon, in a pinch it can be sipped without a spoon) and requires minimal clean-up. Bread also has a long history of filling empty bellies during the worst of times.
"Manhattan's newest mid-town penny restaurant is doing a rushing business...Ont he two upper floors there is a sevice change of three cents a meal, and a chance to sit down at the gleaming white tables after the diners have collected the items of thier meal cafeteria fashion...But it is on the ground floor that the penny meal plan devised by the Bernarr Macfadden Foundation is seen in its full benefits for the white-collar worker whose self-respect will not permit him to beg so long as he can find occasional work. Of such men and women there are many thousands in New York City today who obtain an occasional day's work that enables them to keep going...the Free Food Ticket Fund Committee...works in conjuction with with the penny restaurants. Mrs. Sprague said that in the las few weeks donations enough to provide 75,000 five-cent meals had been received. The organization hopes to provide 2000 meals a day for 250 days, which will require a fund of ,000. Seventy-five per cent of the patrons of the penny restaurants are unemployed, it is estimated. At one cent an order the diners may obtain soup, cracked wheat, steamed cornmeal, steamed oatmeal, steamed hominy grits, bread pudding, stewed prunes, stewed raisins, honey, milk, tea, raisin coffee, black coffee, whole wheat doughnut, two slices of whole wheat bread or whole wheat raisin bread. For five cents...it is possible to obtain a filling lunch, for with soup, pudding and a beverage, accounted for at three cents, and order of creamed codfish on toast may be had for two cents more. Omit the pudding or the beverage, and your nickel will buy one of the three cent orders; a meat cake, fruit salad, half a grapefruit, sliced peaches, a whole wheat crumb cake, lettuce and tomates, tuna fish salad. To those who hadn't a nickel, a total average for 1200 five-cent meals have been served without charge daily at the five penny restaurants now operating in New York City. The total number of meals now being served in these restaurants averages more thean 10,000 a day. Today persons in need of one of these nickel meals must go to one of the 90 welfare organizations scattered about the city for a ticket. As some of these needy ones still have sufficient pride to dislike applying for charity in any guise, it is hoped by the penny restaurant managers that the city welfare department will soon see fit to relsease a license to permit applicants for tickets to sand in line near the mid-town restaurant, waiting their turn when a generous passer-by makes possible, by a donation of , for 20 of these men to eat. From 500 to 800 men have been in the Forty-third Street twice daily, satisfied to wait an hour or more on the street for the pot-luck that will come to them in the crowd, a way of getting a meal ticket without asking sometone for it... Why is the City Welfare Department holding up the license forr this line? According to the best explanation obtainable, it is thought at City Hall that it "does not look well" at this time for such a line to be seen in a mid-town street." "At this time" may be interpreted as covering vaguely a preelection period, during which Tammany would have the city wear as fair a face as possible. Thrusting a congregation of hungry men into the public eye twice daily, even on such an unfashionable thoroughfare as Sixth Avenue, is not precisely the best possible advertisment for the merits of the incumbent administration."
---"Penny Cafes That Pay Way With Hearty Nickel Meals Give Heart to Unemployed," E.C. Scherburne, Christian Science Monitor, July 14, 1933 (p. 1)
Heyburn State Park (Idaho)
"For family consumption there is just at present, a vogue for the combination dinner, the main dish of which may be anything from a one-pot recipe to an oven or grill colleciton including meat, green and starch vegetables and dessert all cooked at the same time, over the one heat unit, and served as a unit, too. Whether the tendency is due to a cultivated taste for blended flavors than to the modern cry for speed and 'efficiency' is hard to determine. But every thougthful home-maker is able to set several reasons for this intimate service which not only brings variation to home tables, but more than cuts in half the serving and washing dishes. Among the meals are such selections as noodles, cooked first, drained an baked with tomato sauce, mushrooms and strips of bacon. This combination goes to the table in its pretty glass or porcelain baking dish garnished with parsley. With it is served a simple salad, and for dessert a hot and sugary baked pear or apple with cream. A second one-pot dinner is the veal or lamb pie, cooked with all sorts of vegetables and a top crust of biscuit dough, lightly browned. These pies can be made very dainty served in individual ramekins or small deep-dish pie plates. So far as nicety goes, we are not as they say, getting back to first principles of the caveman. For today's one-dish dinners are managed with much neatness and an appetizing flair. But in simplicity and the wholesome ingredients coook in their blended habit of letting various juices the modern adapatation has all the good points of its early ancestors."
---"Food Fashions," Daily Record [Morris County NJ], November 23, 1931 (p. 9)
The following menus are extracted from Aunt Sammy's Radio Recipes Revised, Bureau of Home Economics, U.S. Department of Agriculture [Government Printing Office:Washington]
"Dinner menus for February
Scalloped oysters, five-minute cabbage, pickled beets, jellied fruit; Lima beans in tomat sauce with crisp bacon, mashed rutabaga turnip, lettuce with tart dressing, fruit, chocolate drop cookies, roast beef, Yorkshire pudding, scalloped parsnips, turnip greens, pickled cherries, Washington pie..
"Dinner menus for April
Cheese souffle, spring onions on toast, browned parsnips, olives and radishes, rhubarb Betty, pork chops, savory cooked lettuce, parley potatoes, chili sauce, jelly roll; fresh beef tongue, wilted dandelion greens, fried potato cakes, banana pudding...
"Dinner menus for July
Cold sliced meat, potato salad, rolls, peaches and cream, iced coffee, tea, or chocolate; fried or broiled chicken, new potatoes, peas, currant jelly, strawberry ice cream, vanilla wafers; broiled ground beef on toast, lima beans, fried tomatoes, Spanish cream...
"Dinner menus for October
Scalloped onions and peanuts, spinach, hot biscuits, catsup, lemon pie; cold boiled ham, succotash, carrots, cold slaw, green tomato pie; cream of vegetable soup, oven-toasted bread, grated cheese and lettuce salad, apple sauce, hot gingerbread; roast chicken, mashed potatoes, Brussels sprouts or some other green vegetable, crabapple jely, peanut-brittle ice cream, sand tarts..."
"Wednesday Dinner: Cocktail of Mixed Melon Balls, Minute Steaks, French Fried Potatoes, Sauteed Mushrooms, Buttered Summer squash, Vanilla Junket with Raspberries, Coffee or Iced Tea...
Saturday Luncheon: Chilled Tomato Cocktails, Salmon Loaf, Molded Potato Salad, Hawaiian Coleslaw, Olives, Spiced Sekel Pears, Water-Cress-and-Lettuce Sandwiches, Buttered Nut Bread, French Peach Pie, Hot Coffee, Grape-Juice Lemonade, Milk." (p. 38)
The following menus are extracted from Ida Bailey Allen's Cooking, Menus, Service, [Garden City:New York] 1935
Breakfast (fall menus) (p. 20-21)
- Stewed prunes, corn flakes and milk, boiled eggs, toast and butter, coffee, milk.
- Oatmeal cooked with dates, top milk, bacon, muffins and butter, coffee, milk.
- Pears, cracked wheat, top milk, creamed codfish on toast, coffee, milk.
Lunch (fall menus) (p. 20-21)
- Poached eggs with rice and cheese, Graham bread and butter, grape jelly, cocoa.
- Boston baked beans, steamed brown bread and butter, piccalilli, canned peaches, tea.
- Chicken or veal soup, dumplings, mince pie, tea.
Lunch/School lunch box menus (p. 45-6)
- Peanut butter and entire-wheat bread sandwiches, scrambled-egg sandwiches, raising ginberbread, an apple, milk (hot-cold bottle).
- Creamed chicken, ham or veal and entire-wheat bread sandwiches, jelly and white bread sandwiches, a hard-cooked egg, sponge cake, lemonade.
Lunch/Lunch box meals for the worker (p. 48)
- Sliced ham and currant jelly sandwiches, made with entire-wheat bread, egg salad sandwiches made with white bread, apple pie, cheese, hot coffee, an orange.
- Cold baked beans, Boston brown bread and butter sandwiches, spiced beef sandwiches with white bread, a raw tomato with salt and pepper, Portsmouth orange cake, an apple, hot tea.
Dinner (fall menus) (p. 20-21)
- Vegetable bouillon, meat loaf, stewed tomatoes, baked potatoes, bread and butter, lettuce, celery and grape salad, gingerbread with whipped cream, black coffee.
- Chicken or Veal Fricassee, boiled rice, buttered beets, sweet pickles, bread and butter, hermits, sliced oranges, black coffee.
- Broiled halibut of mackerel, parsley sauce, spinach, spaghetti Itilain, bread and bitter, spice cake (left-over) served with custard sauce, black coffee.
"A Week of Family Menus," America's Cook Book, compiled by the Home Institute of the New York Herald Tribune [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York] 1937 (p. 855)
Sunday: Breakfast--Sliced oranges, prepared cereal, fluffy omelet, toast, marmalade, coffee, milk; Lunch--Tomato loaf salad, cream cheese and chives sandwiches, peach cream dessert, tea, cocoal; Dinner--Stuffed shoulder of lamb, browned potatoes, buttered beets, asparagus salad, frozen prune pudding, milk, coffee.
Tuesday: Breakfast--Applesauce, hominy with shredded dates, poached egg on English muffin, coffee, milk; Lunch--Chopped lamb, green pepper, and lemon sandwiches; creamed carrots and peas, sliced peaches, cookies, tea, milk; Dinner--Creole beef with noodles, summer squash, perfection salad, lemon meringue bread pudding, coffee, milk.
Friday: Breakfast--Orange juice, flaked cereal, scrambled eggs, muffins, jam, coffee, milk; Lunch--scalloped mixed vegetables (with cheese), fruit gelatin, fruit drop cookies, tea, milk; Dinner--Baked salmon, parsley sauce, stuffed baked potatoes, spinach, orange and watercress salad, pineapple topped pudding, coffee, milk.
"Club Party Menu
Ice cream or punch, small cakes or sandwiches, coffee, butter balls, petit fours, mapel meringue cookies.
"Chicken soup with noodles, Chicken Chop Suey, Chinese rice, egg foo yung, tea rolls, preserved kumquats, tea.
"Afternoon Tea or Coffee
Shrimp aspic with Thousand Island Dressing, Sally Lunn, Himmel Trote or caramel tea rolls, poppyseed roll, coffee.
"Children's Supper Party
Bouillon, croutons, chicken timbales or mousse, mashed potatoes with parsley, jellied oranges, bread and butter sandwiches or orange and nut bread or butterscotch toast, sunshine cake, vanilla ice cream, daisy cream candy.
"Children's Birthday Menus
Creamed chicken, animal shaped sandwiches, milk or orangeade, birthday cake with candles, junket custard or chocolate rice, marshmallows or date and walnut bonbons.
"Washington's Birthday Luncheon
Halves of oranges, with Maraschino cherries in center, chicken a la Maryland, with drum sticks, southern sweet potatoes, Virginia corn bread, cherry salad, Boston brown bread, chcoolate log cake (cocoa roll), nuts, raisins, coffee, Washington punch.
"Saint Patrick's Day Party
Halves of grapefruit with green Maraschino cherry in center, olives, celery and nuts, cream of spinach soup with shamrock shaped toast, pork chops with apples, onions and green peppers, O'Brien potatoes, clover leaf rolls, shamrock salad with Irish dressing (Vinaigrette), salted wafers, Erin Ice (Creme de Menthe ice) or blanc-mange, with a bit of "Ould Sod" (grated sweet chocolate), potato chocolate torte, mint wafers, tea."
---The Settlement Cook Book, Mrs. Simon Kander [Settlement Cook Book Co.:Milwaukee WI] 1936 (p. 608-616)
from the 1930s online, courtesy of the Los Angles Public Library. Many of these menus were composed for black-tie type events. Search date 193
[NOTE: Sir Thomas Lipton's Shamrock V was defeated for the 5th time by the Enterprise.]
Nationally-known American candy brands circa 1935:
Tootsie pops, Hershey Bars, Butterfingers, Milk Duds, Baby Ruth, Whitman samplers (box of candy), Lifesavers, NECCOs (& conversation hearts), Mounds, Milky Ways, Heath bars, Snickers, SOURCE: The Century in Food: America's Fads and Favorites, Beverly Bundy & Candy: The Sweet History, Beth Kimmerle
Beech-Nut Baby Foods
Bisquick (General Mills)
(cardboard tube packed refrigerator dough)
Wyler's Bouillon Cubes
Hotel Bar Butter
Frito Corn Chips
Skippy Peanut Butter
3 Musketeers (candy bar)
Heath bar (candy bar)
Nestle Toll House Chocolate Chip Cookies
Campbell's Chicken Noodle and Cream of Mushroom soups
Kraft Miracle Whip
Tree-Sweet canned orange juice
E. & J. Gallo winery founded
Pet Evaporated Milk
Wild Cherry flavor Life Savers
Royal Crown Cola
Carvel (ice cream restaurants)
Ritz Crackers [Nabisco]
Adolph's Meat Tenderizer
Kit Kat bar
Five Flavors Life Savers
ReaLemon Lemon Juice
Goya brand foods
Betty Crocker (General Mills)
Elsie the Cow (Borden)
Hungry Jack pancake mix (Pillsbury)
Chunky Chocolate bar
Mars Almond Bar
Fifth Avenue (candy bar)
Orangina (soft drink)
Howard Johnson's restaurant chain
Pepperidge Farm Bread
Kix cereal (General Mills)
Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Dinner
Ragu Spaghetti Sauce
Sky Bar (New England Confectionery Co.)
Smarties (Rowntree candy)
Lawry's Seasoned Salt
Mott's Apple Juice
Nescafe (instant coffee)
Lay's Potato Chips
Cream of Wheat (5 minute)
Dairy Queen (ice cream stores)
---SOURCES: The Food Chronology, James Trager [Owl Books:New York] 1995 & The Century in Food, Beverly Bundy [Collector's Press:Portland OR] 2002
"In these urban days it has become easier to buy than to make one's tidbits. Molasses taffy used to be made at every god-fearing American home. A 'taffy pull' was a jolly form of entertainment, even if the candy did sometimes turn out to be rather tough. After the 'taffy pull' had lost a little of its pulling power came the era of home-made fudge; in the earlier years of the century every girl had--or is supposed to have had--a plate of this confection of her own making to offer the 'boy friend...
"Incidentally, changing domestic conditions have had much to do with shifting fashions in snack. The evolution of the kitchen of yesterday to the 'serving pantry' of today has worked havoc with between-meals tidbits at home. A roomy cupboard or capacious pantry went with every old-fashioned kitchen...The delightful part was that one rarely know just what one would turn up as the reward of prowling...there was usually a jar of jam, already opened, or a crock of apple butter. A thick slice of home-made bread with a deep spread of apple butter made a wonderful filling for the chinks in a hungry boy's stomach after school...
"...among the causes that have brought changes in our between-meal eating and drinking habits much importance must be conceded to the astounding developments in preserving and packaging goods which have occurred in this century and especially since the World War. The new technique of wrapping and packaging has brought about the spectacular development--largely within a decade--of the 5-cent candy packages now ubiquitous at news stands, drug stores, tobacco shops and the cashier's counters of restaurants. Undoubtedly the constant proximity of such mouthfuls has increased the amount of between-meals munching, at least among city people. What more natural, when waiting for a subway train, than to leave a nickel and pick up a package of Aurora Borealis gum drops? What woman, even when trying to take off a pound a week, can resist the appeal on every hand to buy a 5-cent bar of Angels' Delight milk chocolate? The increased offering of snacks of carious sorts in public places has, in the space of a generation, revolutionized the American attitude toward eating in public places. Formerly, a grown man or woman considers it undignified to munch while walking along the street, but today almost anybody from college professor to errand boy will make away with a bit of candy as he strolls Broadway; and some people think nothing of whole-heartedly cramming down a large-sized banana.
"Packaging has been extended to nuts as well as sweets...Peanuts, like candies, are mostly offered these days in 5-cent packages, shelled, hulled and salted--salted far too much for the taste of the true peanut gourmet, but necessarily so, dealers say, to repel insects. One of the latest comers among packaged nuts is the cashew...Symptomatic of, change in our between-meal eating habits is the metamorphosis of the soda fountain. A generation ago a soda fountain was an inconspicuous affair where there was carbonated water, half a dozen syrups and practically nothing else...Today, when one calls for a 'soda,' ice cream is put in as a matter of course, and in order to get a plain drink one would have to tell the attendant how to make it...A rival to the soda-water fountains in serving between-meals foods and drinks has appeared in the past decade in the spectacular prolifertion of cubby-hole counters for the sale of orange drink and more recently of pineapple beverages; and the 'hot-dog' grill, once limited to Coney Island and other excursion resorts, has within the same period spread like measles all over the country...
"The school boy or girl coming down the street with a once-cent piece...receives most respectful attention from candy factories which spread over blocks as well as from retailers...The hand that holds the penny still rules a considerable part of the candy world...The tastes of childhood seem to have remained more conservative and constant in this century of upheaval than those of their elders. The old-time rock candy has gone...and probably one would have to go far today to discover those delightful motto candies that we knew when we were very young--the heart-shaped disks with such frank avowals as 'I love you'... But the licorice drops and 'shoe strings' of the Age of Innocence still abide. Lollypops...as also the traditional red-and-white peppermint candies, are other childhood favorites which have survived...After-dinner mints...are for grown-ups who do not understand the subleties of candy or much of anything else. Even though made anemic white, they have become enormously popular of late years. One factory recently turned out seventy tons in twenty-four hours.
"Traveling carts still bake and sell sweet potatoes on the east side in Winter; and other carts in season dispense corn boiled on the cob. Best of all, the perambulating vendor with his charcoal fire and sweet-smelling pan of roasting chestnuts still pervades even the busiest streets of New York. For him the century has brought only one change. The disappearance of American chestnut trees has made it necessary to substitute Italian nuts for the smaller and...sweeter native variation... "A generation jaded with 'cocktail teas' may return with zest to the kaffeeklatsch,' or late-afternoon repast of coffee and cakes, once traditional among New York's German families. And who knows but that the perverse younger generation, blase with hip-flask parties, would welcome as a hilarious novelty an old-fashioned 'taffy pull.'"
---"Odd Hour Munching in the Machine Age," Arthur Warner, New York Times, April 24, 1932 (p. AM14)
, Henrietta Rippinger, New York Times, April 8, 1934 (p. SM14)
. Hello bar menus. How much did drinks ?
"First the old-fashioned saloon, then the newfangled speakeasy, then what? This is the question which bobs up these days like the ghost of Banquo at Macbeth's feast to trouble both the moderates and the wringing wets. If it is beer alone which is being discussed, the discussion as to whether to sell it in barrels or battles in hotels and restaurant or over the counter like ice cream soda is as important as its alcoholic content. When the total repeal of prohibition comes up the question becomes even more complicated. The only point on which almost all the advocates of beer and light wines and some of the advocates of cups which inebriate as well as cheer seem agreed is that the saloons shall not return. To make this statement is a little like saying that the Victorian red plush sofa or the horse and buggy shall not return, for, whatever the laws of the land may be, the saloon, as America once knew it, is an out of date as those two ounce cherished institutions. two-thirds of Congress and three-fourths of the States may conceivably join to legalize hard drinking. ..The saloon brought about prohibition, but the process cannot be worked backward--the repeal of prohibition cannot bring back the saloon...The things that killed the saloon were those that made it picturesque. Its allurement and its wickedness were those of a vanished day when, for hundreds of thousands of men, drinking was almost the only cheap and regular entertainment available during the hours of more or less elegant leisure. This being true, it is now possible to regard the saloon as a historical episode and not as a live issue and to approach it--figuratively speaking--with the philosophical detachment of one contemplating a social trend which has curled up and died. There are...many misconceptions about it. it has had its better enemies and some who have seen it both good and evil. It was infinitely better than the vile speakeasies which sell 'smoke' in the poorest sections of New York; it was no worse than the beer houses which now clutter floors in mid-manhattan; and it was worse in some ways than the quieter speakeasies so largely patronized by men and women who want good food with cocktails or wine...Whether for better or worse, it was unique in its masculinity...'The best patron of a saloon is the man with the biggest thirst'...Patrons of the saloons did get drunk. The worse the saloon, the more drunks. But, as social workers and clergymen have admitted, inebriation was not the saloon's only product. Frequently the saloon served the best food in the neighborhood, including food for the mind as well as the body. It was of the home of a local debating society...Through saloons men kept track of one another, particularly in factory or mill districts; the bartender was a purveyor of news as well as of refreshment..Very different are the speakeasies which have taken the place of the workingman's saloon--dispensaries in the rear of buildings where dinks may be had for 10 cents and up. There was a time when 15 cents would buy a drink of good whisky; the same amount now buys only 'smoke,' a concoction able to produce an intoxication that is a complete physical and nervous collapse...'Smoke' places cater to the down-and-out; they are seldom frequented by men who work. Workingmen with jobs and able to afford anything alcoholic usually make it a home. The cheap speakeasy as a Hogarthian degradation. The old Bowery knew something just as low, but there such saloons were segregated by custom and the gregariousness of the 'bum.' Now the vicious, illegal drinking place has spread over the poorer sections of the city. The war and prohibition brought about radical changes in the drinking habits of Americans, principally because of the participation of women. The cocktail hour was more or less recognized during the war was no longer an exclusively masculine privilege..the speakeasy was at first largely a place for men, with indifferent attention to food and no attempt to cultivate an 'atmosphere.' It was some time before the speakeasy lost the air of surreptitious wickedness and became a normal part of the life in Eastern cities. And in its evolution it was affected tremendously by the insistence of men on sharing it with women--or perhaps it was the other way around. The old custom of standing at the bar and downing glasses of beer or highballs gave way to sitting in a quiet and curtained dining room and consuming hard liquor at leisure. Speakeasies to a large extent have followed a natural development determined by feminine emancipation. If prohibition had not arrived it is certain nevertheless that there would have been much more public drinking by women than there was in the '90s; prohibition added the zest of the forbidden and so hastened the sharing by women of what had been man's exclusive privilege in this country. There are many restaurants what come under the designation of speakeasies because the serve liquor, which are as quite and dignified as any old-time chop house. As a matter of fact, speakeasies are seldom riotous places--the feminine influence is too strong. Their proprietor have learned that by serving good food as well as liquor they can keep a clientele indefinitely...They have their greatest patronage in the evening, drawing from the middle class, whose men would seldom have frequented the saloon at night. The speakeasy's place has become so firmly fixed, at least in New York life, that probably beer alone could not dislodge it. There are as many kinds of speakeasies as there were saloons, but they types of men who frequent them are more restricted. At the bar of the average saloon men of every class rubbed shoulders, but such bars were no more like those of the average modern speakeasy than they were like the bar of Sherry's, quite to the point of exclusiveness. The present home of liquid refreshment may be a baronial-appearing house off Fifth Avenue or a dive near the waterfront--both are speakeasies. One is more expensive than the other and does not poison its patrons; both are equally illegal, and the difference between the people who go to them is the difference between the extremes of society...At noon and from the hour before dinner until late at night these places are often filled with men and women, and the number of women who go together without feeling the need for masculine escort is astonishingly large. Such places have become the playgrounds of a certain type of New Yorker; they are frequently garish in decoration, completely dominated by woman's influence...For a large group of moderate drinkers who used to drop into saloons occasionally, but who now cannot afford to patronize speakeasies and do not care to corrode their interiors with 'smoke,' there is a fascinating occupation of making beer, wine or other liquor at home. At the worst, unless something blows up, this helps to keep the family together. But both the speakeasy and home brewing are doomed if repeal brings with it the sale of alcoholic drinks at a price the average man can afford. So we come to the 'then what?' phrase of our discussion. Whatever it is that takes the place of the legalized drinking places of old, it is certain that it will have competition that the saloon did not have. Life is not so monotonous as it was--at least there are more kinds of monotony. Since prohibition began, in 1919, attendance at motion picture theatres has about tripled--the motion picture now occupies two hours or more of the average person's time each week. In 1919 radio broadcasts did not exist--now there are perhaps 16,000,000 sets, brining into what Victorians would have called the parlor practically everything in the civilized world, from Kings and Presidents to symphony orchestras, jazz bands and 'crooners' that can make an interesting noise...On summer Sundays all who can afford the cheapest second-hand car take to the road...These changes make it certain that no drinking place can ever occupy the place that the old-fashioned saloon did. There is too much competition. But that there is a demand for some form of social drinking is proved by the existence of the speakeasy. Beer which can only be guzzled in the privacy of one's home will not eliminate the speakeasy...The American substitute for the saloon may be a 'beer parlor,' such as may be found in several of the Canadian Provinces...As it is impossible to image the speakeasy continuing indefinitely as an illegal institution, it seems reasonable to expect that, in New York, at least, the drinking place of the future will serve strong drink as well as beer and light wines. But it will not be, in the old meaning of the word, a saloon. Probably, like most present-day speakeasies, it will be a restaurant. The art of cooking may be revived, since with profits from the sale of drinks restaurant proprietors can afford to lose or break even on the sale of food alone. But mainly the difference between the new saloon and the old will like in the refining and restraining., if also intriguing, presence of women in most drinking places. Once man was able to take the jungle when he became temporarily tired of the distaff side of his family. Later he took to the saloon. Prohibition destroyed that last refuge; repeal will not restore it. The drinking place of the future will be co-educational."
---"From Saloon to Speakeasy--and Now? The Change in the Social Picture Makes Us Wonder About Our Future Drinking Places," Russell Owen, New York Times, January 22, 1933 (p. SM6)
Prohibition ended December 5, 1933. Almost immediately, newspapers, magazines and cookbooks generously poured recipes for perfect cocktail parties.
"In the pre-war days the cocktail was a pre-dinner drink, now it precedes almost everything; sometimes it just appears from out of the nowhere and with no excuse." (p. 45)..."A cocktail is an American invention and not one to be particularly proud of, for strangely enough, a cocktail to be good, must be so cold it can hardly be tasted. However, a cocktail is a social drink and it has increased in popularity a hundredfold since Prohibition made it 'smart.' A modern cocktail is a fruit juice with synthetic gin or raw apple brandy; it is made every way in every place and is drunk before, after and between meals. Probably the original cocktail was what is now called an 'old fashioned' one; next came the 'Manhattan' then the ''Martini' followed by a 'Bronx,' and from then on, most anything. These formulae are presented for their historic value only or in case the age of reason returns."
---The Gun Club Cook Book, or a Culinary Code for Appreciative Epicures, Charles Browne, revised edition [Charles Scriber's Sons:New York] 1934 (p. 262-263)
[NOTES: (1) The Gun Club was located in Princeton, NJ. (2) The title page of this book credits Mr. Browne as 'Sometimes Mayor of Princeton; one time Member of Congress; A.M., M.D., and some other things, but primarily interested in cookery."]
"Now that every one may drink with a clear conscience, many hostesses are wondering what to serve with the various beverages. With cocktails before dinner, very dainty canapes should be served. These an be made with caviar decorated and flavored with chopped hard-boiled egg, cooked mushrooms, lemon juice or a little minced onion. Canapes of anchovy paste or other fish pastes are appropriate. Little pearl onions, stuffed olives, or sweet pickles can be served. Toasted crackers with little dabs of Welsh rarebit, served hot, are delicious. If one is entertaining in the afternoon or evening at a so-called 'cocktail party' when highballs are served, the drinks may be accompanied by sandwiches. Thin slices of buttered bread, with a layer of chopped water cress seasoned with a little lemon juice or mayonnaise are rolled up and tied with a green ribbon. Cucumbers marinated in French dressing and flavored with a tiny bit of chopped onion makes an excellent sandwich filling. Another good filling consists of a cup of finely chopped celery with a tablespoon each of chopped apples, nuts, or olives, mixed with mayonnaise. All sandwiches should be daintily prepared. No sweet sandwiches are appropriate...Don't try to entertain you guests. If they are interesting and interested they will entertain themselves. Try to appear as if the entertaining was the easiest thing in the world. You may suffer qualms and trepidations about your party , but never let it be known. With respect to the drinks, Americans are becoming more and more European in their attitude toward highballs. They should be mixed to taste well, and to be enjoyed...using the best materials you can afford...you need have no qualms."
---"Capital Kitchen," Susan Mills, Washington Post, March 9, 1934 (p.. 12)
"One of the odd developments of our thirteen-year 'drought' was the increasing popularity of the cocktail habit: the mixing of this potent drink was always a favorite topic of converstaion. Today, with foreign lands andour own distilleries contributing more and more varieties of liquors to its concocting, the mixing of cocktails is becoming more of an art than ever before. And the cocktail party, which usually begins late in the afternoon and lasts for a few hours at least, is now and established institution...Tradition traces the cocktail to Mexico. It is said that an Aztec chief, on receiving a delectable stimulating drink named it a 'xoctl,' after the maid who brought it to him. And incredible legend this, as the New World had no distilled liquors until the white man brought his firestarter. One might as reasonably attribute the coctail to the lost Atlantis. Washington Irving refers to a colorfu gin drink of the early Dutch setters of New York which had the iridescence of the rear plumage of roosters--hence, some people say, the name 'cocktail.' Another legend is that the cocktail was first offered 'well shaken before taking' at the Wayside Inn at Scarsdale, N.Y. The mixer was Betsy Flanagan. According to this legend also the various hues of the liquors used were responsible for the name. Whatever its origin, the cocktail has been recognized everywhere as an early American work, and its creation has enlisted the highest talent. Nathanie Hawthorne in his novel, 'The Blithesdale Romance' (1852), makes honorable mention of a man as 'being famous for nothing but gin cocktails and commanding a fair salary for that one accomplishment.' An attempt to take from this country the credit of inventing the appetizer has been made in behalf of Engand. It is based on certain passages in the Thackaray novels describing the adventures of one Arthur Pendennis. Harry Foker is advised to take 'some cocktail.' Thackeray's knowledge of the American drink was only literary and he probably never tasted a cocktail until 1852, when he was in the United States on his first lecture tour. An honest mistake may have been made by those who have heard that certain palate-provoking elixers were first compounded at the Pendennis Club, named in honor of the Thackeray hero. That club, however, was not in London, but in Louisville, Ky. and was famed for its mint juleps. Cocktails, however, were drunk in the United States long before the Pendennis was founded, and were enjoyed in New England and New York in various guises. They were served thoroughy iced. The geniuses of the American drinking bar have evolved a thousand cocktails of varied flavors and picturesque names. Albert S. Crockett, historian of the old Waldorf-Astoria, gives the recipes of more than 300 served at that hotel alone. New plays, news events, sports, popular songs, have inspired their titles. The 'cocktail hour' not ony whets the appetite for food, but also satisfies it. One need never leave it hungery. With the many drinks are eaten delicate gastronomic bits--caviar, anchovies, rare cheeses, red salmon roe, crisp crackers and biscuits; constant processions of tempting canapes and hors d'oeuvres passed on trays, in seemingly undiminished numbers. The cocktail hour has qualified as a social institution."
---"Our Cocktails Travel Far: They Influence Habits, Manners, Even Arts," John W. Harrington, New York Times, January 20, 1935 (p. SM17)
"Tea-parties--the good old-fashioned kind--seem to have vanished into thin air, which is rather a pity. I still think it would be very cozy and restful to sit around the fire in the living-room, or around the dining-room table, and eat paper-thin bread and butter and wild strawberry jam, and coeur a la creme, and drink cup after cup of hot fragrant tea, and talk and talk. Instead of which we give a big cocktail party and everyone comes. There are a few hours of dense smoke--and great confusion--and then it's all overk and you really haven't seen or enjoyed anyone. Still, come to think of it, a sherry party of a cocktail party, is fun too. Anyway, this chapter is dedicated to them both. Take your choice."
---June Platt's Party Cookbook, June Platt [Houghton Mifflin:Boston MA] 1936 (p. 225)
[NOTE: Savory recipes included in this chapter are: Coeur a la Creme, Pain Surprise (hollowed & filled bread loaf), Chopped Mushroom and Mayonnaise Filling, Tomato Sandwiches, Cucumber and Chopped Sweet Onion Filling, Chopped Walnut and Watercress Filling, Ham and Horseradish Sandwiches, Shrimp and Horseradish filling, Hot Bacon Biscuits, Potato Chips with Cream Cheese, Raw Vegetables, Liverwurst Appetizers, Shrimps and Mayonnaise and Chili Sauce, Hot Sausage Rolls. (p. 225-237).]
from this book.]
"Cocktail Parties: Beverages: tomato juice cocktail, Dubonnet and sherry, ice cubes, charged water, ginger ale, burbon, rye, and Scotch whiskey. Planner of hot appetizers: sardine snacks, rolled toast with mushrooms, rolled toast with asparagus, cheese puffs, deviled olives, chicken livers in bacon blankets, crabmeat or lobster, small canapes, sausage snacks or cocktail sausage in snack holder. Platter of cold appetizers: rainbow rye bread appetizer, canapes of smoked salmon, stuffed celery stalk with crabmeat, caviar sandwiches piped with cream cheese, rolled sandwiches, filled with mock pate de foie gras or any spread, dried beef snacks.
---The Settlement Cook Book, Mrs. Simon Kander [Settlement Cook Book Co.:Milwaukee WI] 1936 (p. 608-616)
"The Cocktail Party. Your husband, brother or some family friend will superintend the drinks, or, if you are a bachelor girl, a masculine friend--under your supervision. Drink may be mixed and poured in the kitchen or in the corner of the living room on a small table set with a simple cloth for protection and a tray bearing the ncessary mixing ingredients and utensils...The filled glasses are passed on a tray holding an equivalent number of diminutive cocktail napkins. Each guests removes a napkin with the drink as it is presented to him. Drip protectors may include coasters or some composition of impervious to stains from alcohol, or they may be crochedted or knitted 'jackets' which fit over the foot or base of the class. Coasters are passed with the drinks and each guest is requsted to take one to use underneath his drink for protection of the table tops. The 'jacket' type of drip protectors are fieed to the glasses before passing them...At a cocktail party the food served is rightfully termed 'snacks.' Besides varieties of simple crackers, salted nuts, olives and popcorn, any savory canape may put in an appearance...Sandwiches if served should be very small in size to whet the appetite rather than appease it. Sweets, including cake in any form, or candy, are not for the cocktail party--not, as one might suppose, because they are too lady-like; simply that they interfere with the enjoyment of substantial food which properly follows cocktails, either at dinner, or at supper if the party is held in the evening."
---America's Cook Book/Home Institute of the New York Herald Tribune [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York]1937 (p. 888)
[NOTE: This book offers recipes for: "Gin Cocktails, Martini, Bronx, Alexander, Orange Blossom, Grapefruit; Whiskey Cocktails...Manhattan (dry), Manhattan (old), Whiskey Sour, Old-Fashioned; Rum Cocktails...Bacardi, Daiquiri, Planter's Punch; Miscellaneous Cocktails...Dubonnet, Coq Rouge, Applejack, Frosted Mint, Mint Julep, Champagne Cocktail, Gin Rickey, Tom Collins, Whiskey Highball, Hot Whiskey Toddy." (p. 846-849)]
Want to recreate an authentic 1930s-style cocktail party? Several period mixology texts have recently been reprinted:
- Cocktails/Jimmy of Ciros 
- What'll You Have?/Julien J. Proskauer 
- Boothby's World Drinks and How to Mix Them 
- The Old Waldorf Astoria Bar Book 
- Burke's Complete Cocktail and Tastybite Recipes 
Looking for recipes? We own a copy of the New York World's Fair Cook Book: The American Kitchen, Crosby Gaige, produced from the regional American restaurant reference above. It contains regional and state-by-state suggested menus with recipes collected from local professional home economists. We can send you sample pages. Book is also .]
The 1940s were all about rationing, protein stretching, substitutions, rediscovering "grandma's foods", and making do with less. Home cooks made sugarless cookies, , and meatless meals. Cookbooks, magazines, government pamphlets, and food company brochures were full of creative ideas for stretching food supplies. Why the shortage? Food was needed to food soldiers fighting World War II. Farmers and food manufacturers were tapped to supply growing military needs, thus creating a shortage of foods available for domestic civilian consumers.
. The American government encouraged homeowners to create Victory Gardens, small plots of fruits and vegetables to supplement personal and community food supplies. Nutrition information was also widely disseminated to help home cooks create balanced meals for their families. The was passed in 1946, extending Roosevelt's New Deal WPA committment to feeding America's hungry children to ensure a healthy future.
After the war, many new products were introduced to the American public. These "convenience foods" (dehydrated juice, instant coffee, cake mixes, etc.) were the result of military research. Not all of these were embraced enthusiastically. Some traditional home cookes preferred returning to the "old fashioned" way once rationed ingredients appeared on their local grocery shelves.
Other countries also faced similar shortages due to World War II. The United Nations created the in 1945 to combat hunger around the world.
Grandma's Wartime Baking Book/Joanne Lamb Hayes--history notes & modernized recipes
Grandma's Wartime Kitchen/Joanne Lamb Hayes---WWII American cooking notes and recipes
Fashionable Foods/Sylvia Lovgren---food fads by decade
American Decades: 1940-1949/Victor Biondi (editor)
Other foodservice issues included (1) price ceilings (OPA), (2) "meat fixing" (best cuts were directed to fancy hotels not supermarkets) (3) labor shortages (cooks, waiters, bar managers were now soldiers leaving other/newly trained staff to take their place (4) Fewer people in this "make do" economy could afford to eat out. Many restaurants shuttered permanently.
Period newspapers chronicled these complicated issues: , & .
was founded in 1946 to provide WWII veterans with professional training.
Compare with rationing in , & .
Breakfast (p. 161)
- Orange juice, choice of cereal, scramble eggs with cheese, whole wheat toast, coffee, milk.
- Halves of grapefruit, choice of cereal, bacon omelet, tosted English muffins, coffee, cocoa.
- Strawberries, cream, choice of cereal, poached eggs on toast (with deviled ham), coffee, milk.
Brunch (p. 894)
- Orange juice topped with mint, creamed ham and mushrooms, waffles de luxe, maple syrup, apple butter, coffee, milk.
- Sliced peaches and raspberries, choice of cereal, Canadian bacon, baked eggs with cheese sauce, brioche, coffee, milk.
- Chilled honeydew melon, pan-fried sausages, fried tomatoes in cream gravy, cornmeal muffins, coffee, milk.
Lunch/school lunch box(p. 846-7)
- Cream of tomato soup, crackers, raw minced carro and cabbage sandwich (add a little mayonnaise), deviled eggs, soft molasses cookies, apple.
- Vegetable chowder, crackers, peanut butter and orange marmalade sandwiches, celery, packaged cookies, pear.
- Salad of mixed vegetables, pimiento cheese sandwiches, hot water gingerbread, banana, milk.
Lunch/box lunch for factory workders (p. 848-9)
- Meat loaf sandwiches, spreading cheese and piccalilli sandwiches, celery, peaches, chocolate brownies, milk.
- Sliced ham and egg salad sandwiches, cottage cheese and pickle relish sandwiches, grapes, fig bars, milk.
- Liverwurst sandwiches, egg sandwiches on brown bread, cole slaw, mince turnovers, hot cocoa.
Canapes & Hors D'oeuvers (p. 106-116)
Canapes with spreads (avacado, blue and cream cheese spread, hame and olive ), welsh rarebit toasties, cocktail sausages, raw vegetable platter (with Thousand Island dressing or creamy horse radish sauce), stuffed celery stalks.
Dinner/oven (p. 277-8)
- Liver loaf, mashed potatoes, buttered spinach, hearts of lettuce, French dressing, Melba toast, apple-cheese crisp, cream, coffee.
- Scallopine of veal, boiled white rice, baked pared hubbard squash, cole slaw, whole wheat bread, jellied coffee souffle.
- Tomato juice cocktail, baked mustard corned beef, scalloped potatoes, buttered Brussels sprouts, rye bread, orange sherbert, coffee.
Dinner/timesaving (p. 870-1)
- Quick-seared hamburgers, sauteed bananas, buttered spinach, radish salad, French dressing, bread, applesauce, sponge cake, tea, milk.
- Canned onion soup, canned baked beans, tomato salad with cheese dressing, toasted canned brown bread, canned grapefruit sections in grape juice, coffee, milk.
- Pan-fried sausages, canned spaghetti with tomato soauce, cold cooked broccoli on lettuce calad, French dressing, rolls, coffe ice cream, tea.
Dinner/when living alone(p. 873)
- Sauteed fish fillets, buttered limas (add some minced onions), radish and cucumber salad, bread, coffee ice cream, canned chocolate sauce, tea.
- Liver and bacon, buttered asparagus, individual tossed mixed greens salads, sliced peaches, cream, coffee, milk.
- Tomato juice, sausage cakes, corn on the cob, packaged Melba Toast, pineapple and apple salad, cheese, crackers, coffee, milk.
American home menus, November 1943
Breakfast: Tomato juice, ready-prepared whole grain or enriched grain cereal with whole milk, buttered enriched white toast.
Lunch: Panned kidney beans, pickled beets, raisin bread, butter or fortified margarine, gelatine fruit dessert.
Dinner: Meat ball stew, pickle relish, lettuce, nippy mayonnaise dressing, rye bread, butter or fortified margarine, pudding, lemon sauce.
Lunch box: Sliced ham loaf on enriched white bread, peanut butter "pop-u," sandwich filling on raisin bread, cottage cheese, wedge of cabbage, lemon sponge cake.
Breakfast: Applesauce, corn meal griddle cakes, syrup for pancakes and waffles
Lunch: Bean and barley soup, cottage cheese and prune salad, enriched white bread, butter or fortified margarine, orange slices.
Dinner: Scrambled eggs and carrots with toasted bread cubes, creamed stewed tomatoes, cole slaw, evaporated milk dressing, whole wheat bread, butter or fortified margarine, assorted nuts and raisins.
Lunch box: Mashed potato soup, pimento sandwich filling on cracked wheat bread, peanut-prune sandwich filling on soya bread, grapefruit sections, butterscotch pudding
---Meal Planning Guide, Home Economics Institute [Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co.:Mansfield OH] November 1943 (p. 20-1)
- Pot of baked beans, frankfurters in toasted rolls, steamed brown bread, mustard pickles, salad of mixed vegetables, raisin and walnut turnovers, tray of assorted cheeses, coffee.
- Cold sliced baked ham, swiss cheese, peas marinated in French dressing, jellied tomato and potato salad, brown bread sandwiches, frozen chocolate russe, iced tea.
- Veal paprika, noodles with poppy seeds, string beans, a salad of greens, velvet pie, orange mint julep, coffee.
- Creamed oysters, eggs and mushrooms, buttered rice, peas, marinated tomatoes and cucumbers, celery, heated rolls, lemon meringue tarts, mints, coffee.
- Neapolitan spaghetti and meat balls, salad of mixed vegetables, celery rolls in loaf, wine jelly, bran butterscotch refrigerator cookies, coffee.
- Cranberry juice cocktail (served in the living room), ham and string bean savory, corn bread squares, tossed salad of shredded cabbage, prunes, grapes and orange sections, pumpkin pie, coffee
- Baked corned beef with mustard sauce, cheesed new potatoes, horse-radish, salad bowl of tomatoes, celery, radishes and mixed greens, soft rolls, buttered and reheated, raspberry-whip cake, coffee.
---Good Housekeeping, 1944 (p. 899-900)
NO. 1: Whole Baked Ham, slightly warm, Horseradish Sauce...Shrimp or Lobster Aspic...with Blackstone Dressing...Macaroni with Tomatoes and Mushrooms...Crescent Rolls, Milwaukee Rye Bread, Chocolate Coffee Ice Cream, Almond or Peanut Cookies, Orange Sticks, Stuffed Dates, Coffee."
---The Settlement Cook Book, Mrs. Simon Kander [Settlement Cook Book Co.:Milwaukee WI], 25th edition enlarged and revised, 1943 (p. 610)
Picnic basket menus
- Ham and mustard sandwiches, egg and tomato sandwiches, cream cheese and grape jelly sandwiches, assorted fresh fruits, cookies, coffee (vacuum bottle.)
- Deviled eggs, sardine sandwiches, olives, spreading cheese and green pepper sandwiches, fruit, hot water gingerbread, coffee.
- Cold fried chicken, salad of mixed vegetables (in container), bread and butter sandwiches, mincemeat turnovers, tomato juice, coffee.
---Good Housekeeping, 1944 (p. 889)
, 1940's style
Below please find general descriptions of USO canteen fare served in two major US urban locations:
"The food here...is donated--some by businessmen, supplying milk, coffee, meat, candy, fruit and so on, and the rest by housewives or clubs, many of which undertake to provide cookies, cakes or pies every week. This is a big-city adventure in small-town collaboration--the center is run exactly on the principle of a small-town church social, in which Mrs. Jones bakes the cake, Mrs. Smith makes the veal loaf, and Mrs. Brown leads the dishwashing committee. The only difference is in size--hundreds of Mrs. Joneses bake cakes for this one. It takes food in sizable amounts. On busy week end found the canteen serving 2300 cakes, 1250 pounds of hot dogs, 1475 hot-roast-beef sandwiches, 1700 pies, 450 pounds of cookies and 525 dozen doughnuts--all contributed. It took 185 pounds of coffee to supply the demand, and in addition the boys drank 300 gallons of milk, which is a favorite tipple in this spot. On the side, they ate seventy-five pounds of popcorn, potato chips and pretzels, 195 dozen ice cream cups, ten cases of oranges, fourteen boxes of apples and 500 pounds of candy...Mrs. Edward J. Kelly, wife of Chicago's mayor, brought a cake to the canteen one day just after Pearl Harbor, and found the volunteer workers were running out of food...she threw her mink coat on a chair, rolled up her sleeves and began working twelve hours a day. As chairman of the canteen, she has a remarkable staff of volunteer helpers, ranging from society matrons to their own maids, contributing maid's day off. It was Mrs. Kelly who contributed what many of the lads regard as the final touch to Chicago's hospitality. Some of the center's guests ate fast and hard, as if not sure where their next meal as coming from. Soemtimes they stashed a spare hot dog in their pockets to eat later. Mrs. Kelly inaugurated a new service. She began packing box lunches for the hungry ones to take along when they left. Service ment stationed in or near Chicago, or in the city on leave, frequently spent the entire week end in the center, taking breakfast, lunch and dinner there. Their choice of diets sometimes startles the women behind the counter. There was the yeoman, for example whose favorite breakfast consisted of Swiss cheese on rye with vanilla ice cream. Boys from the RAF never fail to try hot dogs, having read that their King and Queen ate this odd American delicacy when visiting the United States..."
---"Chicago Throws a Party," Saturday Evening Post, July 18, 1942 (p. 62)
"Women provide treats...women's groups send enough home-made cake for each day in the month. Not intended to substitute for the army mess but to offer "treats," the canteen serves, besides cake, sandwiches, coffee, milk, punch and occasionally candy and fresh fruit. The soldiers heartily endorsed the canteen's offerings."
---"14,000 Service Men Guests of Brooklyn USA in Month," Catherine Maher, New York Times, November 29, 1942 (p. D3)
Food suggestions for local organizers, party planners, and home-based fundraisers for hosting war-time events:
"When it's time to serve, bring forth those perennial masculine favorites. If you are having a hot dish, serve cheese frankfurters, tomato rarebit, spaghetti, hamburgers or baked stuffed potatoes. Pile stacks of sandwiches on the table, or spiced bread and a selection of cheeses. Original dishes are appealing since soldires get tired of unimaginative eating, substantial and nutritive though army fare is. Consider distributing your refreshments in individual paper bags. If you can get waxed apper, wrap thick sandwiches in it, together with cake and cookies, paper spoon, and napkin, and any ice cream cup. Pass piping hot coffee separately. You can handle large crowds this way, especially if you have each woman in the community wrap several such food bundles before the party. All the cleaning up necessary is a quick collection of paper bags, which is just a few minutes' work. For soldiers with a sweet tooth, try Honey Ice Cream or Honey Marshmallows. Hot pie are applause winners, always. Honey Spice Cake is delicious, easy to prepare, and kind to your sugar ration. Even if the boys don't have a lean and hungry look, they never get their fill of good strong coffee and cake. Make the food simple and adequate and the boys will return to camp pleased with your hospitality. (p. 18-19)
"Party decorations, no moatter how simple, are important to identify the occasion and to set the theme of your party...You need not think of party decorations in terms of lavish, expensive materials. Wonderful effects may behad wtih a few rolls of ordinary crepe paper, leaves and branches, flowers, and other economical items...Patriotic partes: Red, white, and blue bulbs in lamps will cast a lovely light an carry out the theme...Streamers in these colors strung across the room will give it a really festive look...Pin streamers across your tablecloth in diagonal strips or pinwheels to accompany the individual favors which may be little flags, paper hats, or snappers of appropriate color and design. Hang a large flag out of the front window to help you guests identify your house and to add further to the decoration." (p. 47,49)
Additional 1940s buffet menus .
, includes 15 "must have" drinks. Raising the bar: New York City's & , 1946.
What to serve?
"In America since the repeal of the Prohibition Amendment there has developed a new and, at times, delightful form of hospitality--the cocktail party. With this has come the use of the age old French term from 'outside the meal' food. But instead of huge buffets groaning with succulent morsels, as in European homes (formerly!), the age old appetizer has become streamlined along with our trains and automobiles and living. We have developed a most amazing variety of finger food to go with the cocktail and the glass of sherry, literally hundreds of variations, some of course borrowed from our European and Asiatic backgrounds and many that are distinctly our own. In many ways this is one of the most truly American contributions to the art of good living. It is with this finger food that I am concerned in this book and with the cocktail party, whether it be the simple 'drop in for a drink' type or the great 'crush' that pays a year's social depts in one fell swoop. To the average American hostess, practically everything from a potato chip to a whole, six-rib roast of beef comes under the term hors d'oeuvre... Americans have developed what is known as the cocktail hors d'oeuvre ro snack. This is a small 'hasty bite' served usually without bread or biscuit, sometimes on a toothpick and sometimes under its own power. Hot hors d'oeuvre may be eaten with a fork, as they often have a heavy sauce or a marinee."
---Hors D'Oeuvre and Canapes With a Key to the Cocktail Party, James Beard [M. Barrows:New York] 1940 (Introduction, p. ix-x)
[NOTE: this book offers dozens of hot & cold cocktail hors d'oeuvre recipes but no suggested menus. Index . Happy to supply selected recipes; let us know what you need.]
"Tea and Cocktails.
The cocktail hour is one of our American inventions...The first requisite for a party is good liquor. The second is plenty of it. Don't try substituting the second recommendation for the first. Lots of people do that, and for that reason lots of men shy away from the cocktails they are offered a parties. They prefer to do their drinking at a bar where they can see the bottle form which their drinks are poured. Good liquor is not cheap. Cheap liquor is not good. Nor will a lot of very fancy canapes make up for poor drinks...If you're entertaining on a shoestring and have to count the pennies very carefully, then why go in for cocktails at all? Why not be smartly proletarian and have beer on tap or ready to serve from cold bottles, complete with hearty foods? Or, if your friends are connoissuers of wine, why not have some very good white wine and ask your friends in to try this with some dry, slightly sweet biscuits or sponge cake? Or hunt about for one of the very little known Swedish punches-and these are powerful too. Build your party around this with some really Swedish hors d'oeuvres, arranged as smoregasbord. But let us say that you have decided to give your friends cocktails, and the best of their kind. The immediate question is which kind. At the River Club in New York, as the bartender told me, the six most popular mixed drinks are: bacardi cocktails, daiquiris, dry martinis, manhattans, old-fashioned cocktails and whisky sours. Usually, and for even a fairly large party, dry martinis, with whiskey and soda highballs, sherry, iced fruit juice and milk for the many who are on diets but who like going to parties just the same, offer something for every taste. You can mix martinis just before the party and have them ready to pour into cracked ice to be stirred round and round when the guests begin to arrive. Martinis are always stirred, not shaken. An olive is dropped into the glass; the cocktail is poured over it; a thin slice of lemon rind is twisted above the glass to let one drip of the pungent oil fall into it, and the martini is ready. There's an exact ritual about the glasses for various drinks. Men are proverbially particular about this point. Perhaps you can't honestly feel that it's a life-or-death matter to serve each drink in its properly ordained glass, but probably your husband does...If you are having your firends come to the house for cocktails it is well to have tea, too, since a number of people really prefer it to any othe drink during the afternoon...What to serve with cocktails? Since Repeal American ingenuity has been at work inventing canapes that cause foreigners to gasp at our temerity. Daring combinations of oysters, peanut butter, caviar, anchovies and melted cheese are set out to betray the unwary into indigestion."
---Entertaining is Fun! How to be a popular hostess/Dorothy Draper [Doubleday, Doran & Company:New York] 1941 (p. 67-70)
NO. 1: Beverages: Liquor cocktails, Yellow tomato juice cocktail, Dubonnet and Sherry, Ice cubes, Charged water, Ginger ale, Bourbon, Rye, and Scotch Whisky. Platter of hot appetizers: Sardine pasties, Rolled toast with mushrooms, Cheese puffs, Snacks in bacon blankets, Crabmeat or lobster canapes, Picquant puffs. Platter of cold appetizers: Rainbow rye bread appetizer, Canapes of Smoke salmon, Stuffed celery stalk with crabmeat, Caviar sandwiches...piped with cream cheese, Rolled sandwiches filled with mock pate de foie gras or any spread, Dried beef snacks, Raw chopped meat.
No. 2: Sunday night cheese, Artichoke and shrimp appetizer, Toasted rye bread triangles, Any desired cocktail or drink, and hors d'oeuvres tray, of various spreads with crackers or toast points."
---The Settlement Cook Book, Mrs. Simon Kander [Settlement Cook Book Co.:Milwaukee WI], 25th edition enlarged and revised, 1943 (p. 611)
An informal way of serving a first course of canapes is to arrange several canape spreads each in a small, attractive bowl. Arrange the bowls on a tray, along with individual butter spreads. Put the tray on a convenient table in the living room. Beside it, arrange plates of assorted crackers, with toasted bread, Melba toast, bread sticks, potato chips, celery sticks or, if desired, halves of hard-cooked eggs from which the yolks have been removed and used in one of the spreads. Then let the guests spread their own canapes and fill their own celery sticks and eggs, to be eaten with fruit juice, vegetable juice, or other cocktails. Or if you are having a leisurely meal and can take a little more than the usual time for the first course, bring in your toaster, and toast crisp hot pieces of bread for the assorted spreads in bowls. In fact, you can buy a combination toaster and tray with several dishes designed to hold assorted canape spreads. Such spread-your-owns are excellent too as an afternoon snack, served with tea or coffee." (p. 109)
Spread recipes offered by this book are: avocado, blue and cream cheese, crabmeat, cream cheese and egg, giblet and egg, ham and olive, mock pate de foie gras (made with liverwurst), sardine and egg, sherry cheese, and "spread-your-own," (chopped frankfurters blended with mustard, sour pickles, and mayonnaise). (p. 109-111)
Hors d'oeuvres, like canapes, should be of such a size that they can be easily eaten in one or two mouthfuls. You may arrange two or three varieties on a tray as an accompaniment to a first course of fruit juice, vegetable juice or other kinds of cocktails, served in the living room before luncheon, dinner, or supper. Frequently one or several kinds of hors d'oeuvres which can be easily eaten with the fingers are arranged on a platter and passed to each guest, at the table, as an accompaniment to the first course of tomato juice, clam juice, or similar cocktail, which is in place at each cover just before or after the guests sit down. If you want something unusual as a refreshment for an afternoon or evening party, a club meeting or afternoon tea--try serving an assortment of hors d'ouvres such as those which follow with a cup of tea or coffee, or with a cooling vegetable juice or fruit juice cocktail." (p. 111-2)
Hors d'oeuvre recipes offered by this book are: apple and salami porcupine, cheese pecans, chicken liver and bacon, cocktail sausages, dried beef roulades, green or ripe olives in garlic French dressing, potato chip snappies (bleu cheese and minced onion spread thinly on potato chips), raw carrot-cheese, raw vegetable hors d'oeuvre platter, salami sandwiches, shrimp (served with cocktail or horseradish sauce), stuffed celery stalks stuffed with cream cheese & crushed pineappe, seedless raisins, minced onion, horseradish, bleu cheese, salmon or any of the above canape spreads), stuffed cheese olives, stuffed olives and bacon, stuffed olives in anchovy butter.
Fruit, fish and vegetable cocktails
"Fruit and fish cocktails are often served in cocktail glasses, designed for the purpose, which fit into bowls holding crushed ice. If these are not available however, or a simple service is desired, sherbet glasses may be used instead. In either case, arrange the bowl or sherbet glass on a small plate, and then place on the service plate at each cover, either just before the guests sit down or immediately thereafter. They oyster fork for the the fish cocktail, or the spoon for the fruit cocktail, should be placed at the extreme right of the silver at the right of the service plate. Juice cocktails such as tomato, vegetable, or fresh or canned fruit juice may also be served in cocktail glasses set in bowls of crushed ice. Or, simple cocktail glasses without the bowls for ice may be used...Many hostesses like to serve a first course of tomato, vegetable, or fruit juice, or other cocktail with or without a few hors d'oeuvres...in the livingroom. The juice cocktail in cocktail glasses is passed, with a small cocktail napkin for each guest, from a tray. A small plate may be placed under each cocktail glass if desired. Then the hors d'oeuvres, one or more as preferred (select ones which can be eaten with the fingers) are passed from plate or platter. In serving such a first course in the living room, the hostess without a maid has an opportunity to slip out and get the main course on the table, while the guests are enjoying their cocktails." (p. 117)
Cocktail recipes offered by this book are: avocado, bouquet (chilled melon balls, bananas, grapes, orange & grapefruit), broiled grapefruit with sherry, chilled honeydew, grapefruit and avocado, grapes in orange juice, halves of grapefruit, melon balls in grapefruit juice, red raspberry and pineapple, cranberry and pineapple juice, grape juice and ginger ale, grapefruit juice and mint, minted orange juice, pineapple and grape juice, pineapple lemon foam, spiced grape juice, clam, crabmeat, crabmeat and avocado, shrimp mayonnaise, clam juice, clam and tomato juice, oysters on the half shell, sauerkraut juice, tomato juice, tomato and sauerkraut juice." (p. 118-126)
---Good Housekeeping Cook Book, New Edition, completely revised 1944 [Farrar & Rinehart:New York]
"Bente, 24, blamed 10 'atomic bomb cocktails' for a bigamous marriage to huge Fred Bente, jr. of Palm Beach, Fla. The recipe: 'To two jiggers of whisky, poured in a tall glass with shaved ice, add Seven-Up and a vodka floater,' she said."
---"'Atom Bomb' Drinks Blamed for Bigamy," Washington Post, March 20, 1946 (p. 12)
"An Englishman orders whisky and soda, an Italian vermouth, a Scandinavian aquavit, a Russian vodka and an American--well, almost anything that combines many things. Our taste for mixing alcoholic beverages is kown the globe around; the cocktail is as much a part of the national scene as the World Series and the drug store that sells everything but refrigerators. Here in New York, entertainment capital of the country, restaurants, night clubs and hotels often cater to our predilection for mixed drinks by featuring at least one as their specialty. For example, the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel not only has the Waldorf-Astroia cocktail, but also the Waldorf cocktail, the New Waldorf cocktail and the Astoria cocktail, in addition to six others!...Astoria Cocktail: 1/2 part gin, 2/3 part French vermouth, Two dashes orange bitters. Stir with ice, strain and serve."
---"News of Food: Club and Hotel Cocktail Recipes Show Americans' Predilection for Mixed Drinks," Jane Nickerson, New York Times, October 23, 1946 (p. 31)
"Cocktail Parties. La Brinvilliers, a notorious poisoner, was beheaded for her crimes. According to a French wit, the only difference between La Brinvilliers and the average cook is the intention. This is particularly true of menu building, wherein many a hostess sins grievously, but at a "help yourself" party she may give her fancy free reign and let her guests assume full responsibility. Alcoholic or non-alcoholic cocktails--either or both. A choice of the following suggestions: Stuffed celery, Olives, Radishes, Marinated mushrooms, Hot ripe olives, Potato chips and cheese Antipasto, Lobster spread sandwiches, Caviar and cucumber canapes, Very small hot toasted sandwiches or puff shells (mushroom, cream cheese, liversausage, oysters etc.), Codfish balls, Tiny broiled sausages with mustard cream, Chicken livers in blankets, Broiled sardine canapes, Deviled sardines, Rolled tongue or chipped beef hors d'oeuvre, Lettuce sandwiches, crab or lobster canapes, pastry snails, Shrimp surround a small hollowed cabbage filled with mayonnaise or pink sauce for shrimp, Meat pie in dough (rissoles), Pretzels and cream cheese, Pickled onions and bacon, Bacon and saltine canape, Oyster canapes, salted nuts." ---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer [Bobbs-Merrill:Indianapolis] 1946 (p. 800-1)
(For large groups-more than 12)
Pineapple centerpiece Appetizer, surrounded with small round cakes, Stuffed olive pinwheels, Sailboat appetizers, Caviar-egg Appetizer, Swan-Shrimp Appetizer, Man's favorite appetizer, Hot cheese soullfe appetizer, Assorted small cakes or cookies, Cocktails, Dry wines and Fruit juice punch.
Cheese apple centerpiece appetizer, surrounded with crackers, Tuna fish, crab meat or lobster appetizer (cold or hot), Surprise olive appetizer, Coronation appetizer, Strawberry appetizer, Assorted small cakes or cookies, Cocktails, Dry wines and Fruit juice punch.
Cocktail Parties (For small groups) Bonbon Elite, Hotel Rainbow Appetizers, Hot Hame Bouches, Hot Mushroom Meringe Appetizers, Sweet pea Appetizer, Assorted small cakes or cookies, Cocktails and Dry wines."
---Antoinette Pope School Cookbook, Antoinette and Francois Pope [MacMillan:New York] 1948 (p. 345) [NOTE: We can fax/mail the recipe pages to you.]
Popular alcoholic beverages, 1949:
The following drinks are offered in James Beard's Fireside Cook Book [Simon & Schuster:New York] 1949 (p. 303-306)
Abbey Cocktail, Alexander Cocktail, Applejack Cocktail, Bacardi Cocktail, Bijou Cocktail, Black Velvet, Bobby Burns Cocktail, Brandy Cocktail, Brandy Smash, Bronx Cocktail, Clover Club Cocktail, Daiquiri, Dubbonet Cocktail, French 75, Frozen Daquiri, Gibson Cocktail, Jack Rose Cocktail, Manhattan Cocktail, Martini Cocktail (dry), Martini Cocktail (sweet), Old Fashioned Cocktail, Pink Lady Cocktail, Rob Roy Cocktail, Sidecar Cocktail, Stinger Cocktail, Vodka Cocktail, Zombie. Long Drinks: Blue Blazer, Champaige Punch, Cobblers, Collins, Daisy, Eggnogg, Fizz, Flips, Golden Fizz, Highballs, Hot Buttered Rum, Mint Julep, Rickeys, Silver Fizz, Slings, Smashers, Sours, Swizzles, Toddies, Tom and Jerry, Whiskey Cooler.
were among the most intriguing. Savvy restauranteurs and trendy hostesses embraced the opportunity to explore different flavors, optimize creative decorations, and introduce alternative dining customs. Trader Vic (Victor Bergeron) built an empire on this premise. Polynesian-stlyle theme parties remained popular into the early 1960s. Here are Trader Vic's party notes for USA home hostesses, circa 1946:
"Sunday afternoon or any evening--it's all the same. If you have a patio and barbecue pit, by all means make it an outdoor affair, the weather permitting, but indoors won't cramp your style any. Indoors or out, you'll want plenty of flowers and greens for decoration, and it will mean gathering flowers from the gardens of your friends as well as stripping your own. If you're in the chips and want to spend great gobs of dough you'll use nothing but orchids, anthurium, gardenias, bird-of-paradise, and hibiscus and perhaps have ginger and pikaki leis flown over from Honolulu, but I'm assuming that you will hae more sense than money and are willing to let the toil of your own lily-whites make up for the difference. Put flowers wherever they will be seen--on top of fence rails, cupboards, window sills, and on shelves. Use greens and flowers of all kinds in profusion to give a tropical effect, a feeling of lush abundance. You'll need loads of flat ferns or any large leaves for the table to take the place of ti and banana leaves used on the islands. If you can collect enough of them, spread these broad leaves on the floor to walk on and ask your guests beforehand to come in white ducks or pareus and be prepared to remove their shoes upon entering.
"If you party is to be held indoors, put away all the doodads and bric-a-brac. Just leave the furniture and give every room your guests will see a liberal flower treatment, even the lalas. Paper leis can be combined with fresh flowers and greens and you can ask a few close friends over the day before the feast to help you make flower leis, one for each guest. Leis can be made from any flowers that mass well and don't wilt too quickly, such as daisies, marguerites, carnations, cornflowers, chrysanthemums, dahlias, pinks, asters, et cetera. The stems are removed and the flower heads are threaded on strong thread with a large needle. These leis can be put in boxes of wet newspapers and kept fresh in a cooler or icebox overnight. A refrigerator would be too cold, making the blossoms wilt more quickly when removed from such a low temperature...Its a custom in the islands for the host and hostess to present each guest with a flower lie and a kiss. The host takes dare of the women and the hostess gubers the men. Like our mistletoe at the Christmas season, this limbers the reflexes and starts things off on a friendly basis. In addition the men are given crowns of flowers and the women flowers for their hair. The wreaths give the men a rakish air and bring out the madcap in the most sedate. It has been by observation that no man can be still with something on his head. When or by whom party hats were invented I don't know, but whoever it was knew his psychology. And that's a tip for harried hostesses when confronted with a guest list of stuffed shirts. Just put something on their heads...the wreaths...[are] made from a flat sword fern wired or tied together in a circle and studded with small flowers--daisies, cornflowers, or whatever you happen to have.
"Contrary to the usual custom of keeping the dining room closed off as a surprise until the meal is served, guests should be taken immediately to see the results of your labors and the preparations made for their entertainment--and sample the punch. This will bet them into the spirit of the party, especially the punch. And here should be a punch bowl, by all means. It doesn't matter whether you use a wooden tub or a hollowed-out log, as long as it's seaworthy, because the sides won't show anyway. You canuse a large crock or take a large lard bucket and have it sandblasted. Better still, get a twenty-five gallon barrel and saw it in hlaf. At any rate, use something unique because you've thrown formality out the window for the day. Set your improvised punch bowl on a side table or buffet, covered first with greenery, then bank the sides of the container with coconuts, hands of bananas, wholepineapples, citrus fruits, limes, green avocados, and small fruits as available. After that tuck flowers and green leaves around the edge of the bowl and in th crevices between the fruits. For punch cups, use coconut shell cups or sections of bamboo sawed into cups. Coconut cups are easily made by sawing coconuts in half and allowing them to dry for a vew days until the meat comes loose from the shell. The outer husk can be sandpapered and the edges smoothed down. For holders, cut other coconuts into rings into which the cups can be set and not tip over. These same punch cups or whatever you decide to use will be used throughout the meal to follow.
"Music isn't essential but soft island music will help set the tempo of your party. Perhaps someone you knows plays a ukeulele or guitar, or you might even hire a musician for the day. A record player, stacked with records of Hawaiian music and turned down low, will do the trick too.
"If your guests are yound and limber, spread the feast on the floor or round in true island style, but if their bones creak, trade authenticity for comfort and use table and chairs. Forget the knives and forks. People seldom have a chance to eat with their fingers and it's fun if everyone else is doing it. You'll have to plan your menu accordingly tough. Islanders may be able to manipulate such soft foods as one-finger, two-finger, or three-finger poi, but amateurs won't take to the idea. In case you're wondering, that finger business is a measure of the thickness of poi...Whether you spread your feast a floor level or on a table, use ti leaves, ferns, banana leaves, or whatever broad leaves are available, and make a solid green table covering. In the center build a mound of fruits--lemons, oranges, bananas, avocados, small fruits, peaches, pears and apples, topped with a pineapple. If the table is long, several pineapples may be spaced at interval. Lay blossoms profusely among the fruit and down the center of the table. When you get around to setting places, use one large plate, one smaller one, and the punch cup for each cover. Wooden plates and a large shell for the smaller plate will add color and tropical atmosphere. Abalone shells are ideal and even those large scallop shells which are used for baked seafood are suitable. Small shells make good ask trays. You have now eliminated extra dishes, silverware, and numerous appertenances usually considered musts at dinner parties, and you won't have to worry about the tablecloth. You'd better stick to napkins, though, unless you want to emulate the Chinese and pass hot towels and a basin of hot water.
"I put on a party at Cypress Point, near Monterey, California, last year which is still being talked about. The food was takenfrom Oakland about a hundred and twenty-five miles and prepared at the scene of the party. The cooking faciltiies were most inadequate, so anyone could do the same thing at home a lot easier. On one clamshell I served hearts of romaine with French dressing. There were large wooden bowls of batter-fried shrimp, and small bowls of sauce in which to dip them. There were bowls of barbecued spareribs; bowls of chicken and squab, roasted Chinese style, and bowls of banana fritters. The romaine salad compensated for the lack of vegetables and was eaten with the fingers. For the dessert, in addition to the banana fritters, there were compotes of bite-sized fruits such as oranges, apples, and pineapple chunks, with a marinade of curacao, which dould also be fished out with the fingers. I spread the tables with green crepe paper overlaid with a quantity of sword fern and used profusions of great tuberous begonias in the center of the table between the large wooden bowls of food and hurricane lamps. I served the punch in a long wooden canoe-shaped bowl. The punch itself was just a lot of little Zombies ladled out into coconut cups. We finished off with hot buttered rums, coffee grogs, and Tahitian music and dancing...
"If you've ever been to the islands, any of them, you know that the food described is not typical. I'm not claiming that it is, nor am I suggestiong that you serve typical Hawaiian or Tahitian foods--not entirely at any rate. The menu does suggest the tropics, it is delicious, and the manner in which it is served is typical of the islands, which is an important feature. Let me give you other menus which could be used as given or adapted to whatever is available or most easily prepared...There's no hard-and-fast rule about the thing at all.
"Menu Bowls of fried or barbecued shrimp, Smoked oysters, Barbecue chicken or Barbecues Squab (chopped into easly handled pieces with a cleaver), Limed fish with coconut cream, Laulaus with curry sauce, Baked sweet potaotes, Large bowls of sliced assorted fruits (Pineapple, ornges, and apples dipped in lime juice.)" (p. 141-147)
"Menu Roast leg of lamb or Baked ham (Cut meatup in small squares andserve ina bow), Javanese sate (Meat on a stick), Batter-fried shrimps in a bowl, Limed fish with coconut cream, Tahitian Pota, Baked sweet potatoes, Baked bananas, Tahitian Fruit Poi." (p. 153)
---Trader Vic's Book of Food and Drink, Victor Bergeron, with an introduction by Lucius Beebe [Doubleday & Company:Garden City NY] 1946
[NOTE: Recipes for everything except for baked sweet potatoes, roast leg of lamb and baked ham are included in this book. .]
 Arnold Bread, Red Cheek Apple Juice, Dairy Queen soft serve ice cream
 M&Ms, Cheerios
 Tootsie Rolls packed in US ration kits, Post Raisin Bran, Kellogg's Raisin Bran, Dannon Yogurt
 Chiquita bananas
 Kraft Parmesan Grated Cheese, Welch's Junior Mints, Constant Comment Tea
 Pillsbury pie crust mix, frozen french fries, Ragu spaghetti sauce, French's Instant Potatoes, & Tupperware
 Pillsbury hot roll mix, Reddi-Whip, cake mixes, Lady Borden Ice Cream, Almond Joy, frozen orange juice
 V8 Cocktail Vegetable Juice, Nestle Instant Tea, Minute Rice, Nestle's Quik chocolate milk additive, Cheeto's brand snack foods
 Kraft sliced American cheese, Fritos Corn Chips marketed nationally, Sara Lee Cheese cake, Junior Mints, Smarties
SOURCES: The Century in Food/Beverly Bundy, The Food Chronology/James Trager & Candy: A Swet History/Beth Kimmerle
, , & .]
Need to make something for class? We suggest or:
Although thrifty pioneer cooks were well versed in "making do," recipes for "Butterless, Eggless, Milkless" cakes begin to nudge their way into American cookbooks during the early years of the 20th century. Why? These ingredients were sometimes difficult to obtain from World War I through World War II, and cakes such as these were often served on family tables. Crisco, salad oil, lard, mayonnaise were the most common substitutions for the butter (fat). Baking powder/soda substituted for the eggs (to make the cake rise) and water (or canned soup) was used instead of milk (liquid). White sugar was also expensive and rationed during this period. Brown sugar, corn syrup, honey and molasses were often substituted. These cakes are found under a variety of names including "War Cake" and "Depression Cake."
"Depression cake. In the March 1989 issue of Country Living, Food Editor Joanne Lamb Hayes assembled a fascinating colleciton of recipes to show "how families coped in the kitchen during the Great Depression and wartime." This sugarless, eggless cake was developed during the First World War. "Sugar, the cheapest and most compact form of energy...was saved for our boys overseas, so creatie cooks learned to use molasses, honey, or corn syrup instead. For scarce wheat, they substituted barley, oats, for corn; for butter they used vegetable oil." When the Great Depression arrived, just eleven years after the Great War, this frugal cake was renamed Depression cake."
---American Century Cookbook: The Most Popular Recipes of the 20th Century, Jean Anderson [Clarkson Potter:New York] 1997 (p. 441)
[NOTE: this book contains a recipe for Depression cake.]
RECIPES FOR BUTTERLESS, EGGLESS, MILKLESS CAKE
2 cupfuls brown sugar
2/3 cupful Crisco
2 cupfuls water
2 cupfuls sultana raisins
2 cupfuls seeded raisins
1 teaspoonful salt
2 teaspoonfuls powdered cinnamon
1 teaspoonful powdered cloves
1/2 teaspoonful powdered mace
1/2 teaspoonful grated nutmeg
2 teaspoonfuls baking soda
4 cupfuls flour
1 teaspoonful baking powder
1 1/2 cupfuls chopped nut meats
3 tablespoonfuls warm water
Put Crisco into saucepan, add sugar, water raisins, salt, and spices, and boil three minutes. Cool, and when cold add flour, baking pweder, soda dissolved in warm water and nut meats. Mix and turn into Criscoed and floured cake tin and bake in slow oven one and a half hours. Sufficient for one medium-sized cake."
---A Calendar of Dinners with 615 Recipes, Marion Harris Neil [Procter & Gamble:Cincinnati] 1914 (p. 120)
[NOTE: Procter & Gamble manufactured Crisco shortening. This company cookbook shows the home cook how easy it is to incorporate Crisco into everyday recipes, including cakes.]
"Butterless, Eggless, Milkless Cake (No Eggs):
1 c. Brown sugar, firmly packed
1 1/4 c. Water
1/3 c. Vegetable shortening or lard
2/3 c. Raisins
1/2 teasp. Nutmeg
2 teasp. Cinnamon
1/2 teasp. Powdered cloves
1 teasp. Salt
1 teasp. Baking soda
2 teasp. Water
2 c. Sifted all-purpose flour
1 teasp. Baking powder
Boil brown sugar, 1 1/4 c. Water, shortening, raisins, and spices together for 3 min. Cool. Add salt and baking soda which has been dissolved in 2 teasp. Water. Gradually add the flour and baking powder which have been sifted together, beating smooth after each addition. Bake in a greased and floured 8"X8"X2" pan in a moderate oven of 325 degrees F. About 50 min., or until done. Needs no frosting."
---The Good Housekeeping Cook Book, New edition, completely revised 1944 [Farrar & Rinehart:New York] 1944 (p. 698)
Period cookbooks and magazines tell us belly-filling simple meals prepared from pre-packaged goods were popular in the 1950s. This was a perfectly understandable reaction to recent memories of lean pantries, government rationing, and WWII soldier rations. American companies did their best to convince the "typical" 1950s American homemaker to purchase time-saving appliances and serve her family new convenience foods. Did the average home cook buy into all this convenience? Yes, but not immediately. She also liked to experiment and was intrigued by new flavors and recipes introduced by returning GIs. Welcome to the age of Hawaiian-American buffet. Food of the 1950s is much more complicated than it seems on the surface. We recommend Laura Shapiro's Something From the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America.
1950s cookbooks, food company brochures, and popular women's magazines confirm the popularity of & casseroles frosted meatloaf (frosted with mashed potatoes!, served with peas) and anything grilled...though mostly red meat...on the barbeque (a popular "new" suburban trend). Family meals were accompanied by frozen vegetables, with lots of butter or sauce. Canned soup reigned supreme as the ultimate combination of convenience and versatility, explaining the proliferation of casseroles. Three bean salad was ubiquitous. (also known as Trix Mix, TV Mix) was the "signature" snack.
This decade also marked the beginning of ethnic foods entering mainstream America. GIs returning from tours in Europe and the Pacific developed new tastes. Food companies were quick to supply the ingredients. "Americanized" versions of sukiyaki, egg foo yung, chow mein, enchiladas, pizza, lasagne, and barbecued meats with Polynesian sauces regularly appeared in 1950s cookbooks.
Melon ball cocktail
Sea food cocktail
Dried beef rolls
Silver dollar hambugers
Dips & chips/crackers: Lobster Newburg spread, Guacamole, Deviled Ham-Cheese Dip, Hollywood dunk
Canapes: Deviled ham, savory mushroom, hot cheese puffs, minature pizzas, hot clam
Cheerios cocktail snacks (something like Chex Mix)
Decorate your appetizer tray with celery trunks, stuffed cucumbers, grape clusters & fruit kabobs.
---Betty Crocker's Picture Cook Book, revised and enlarged, 2nd edition [McGraw-Hill:New York] 1956 (p. 57-66)
[NOTE: This 1950's classic cookbook was reprinted in facsimile edition in 1998 by the same publisher and is easy to obtain. Ask your librarian for help.]
Stuffed pecans or walnuts
Filled celery (with Roquefort and cream cheese)
Tidbits in blankets (surround cooked shrimp, oysters, stuffed olives, pickled onions, watermelon pickle, sauteed chicken livers, skinned grapefruit sections, dates stuffed with pineapple with thin strips of bacon, secure them with toothpicks. Broil them under moderate heat until the bacon is crisp.)
Sardine and bacon rolls
Sausage and potato rolls
Ham and egg balls
Pineapple fingers and bacon
Broiled stuffed mushrooms (stuff with bread crumbs, shad roe, shrimp)
Cheese for dipping potato chips
---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer [Bobbs-Merrill:Indianapolis] 1953 (p. 28-39)
[NOTE: there is a separate section devoted to canapes and sandwiches]
Barbecued short ribs
Cocktail kabobs (button mushrooms and cocktail franks cut in half marinated in French dressing)
(like Chex Mix)
Pumpernickel squares (crab meat, chili sauce, curry powder, mustard on pump)
Deviled almond rolls
Party pinwheels (dough, leftover meat, moistened with chili sauce, baked)
Filled cream puffs (store-bought puffs filled with hot chicken salad, creamed shrimp, creamed turkey, served in a chafing dish)
Broiled mushroom caps
Baby pizzas (use English muffins!)
Sea-food celery (stuff flaked crab & mayo into cut celery. Garnish with paprika.)
Stuffed eggs (deviled eggs)
Sardine surprise (sardines mashed with hard cooked egg yolks, anchovy paste, dry mustard, butter, & spices. Served on squares on pumpernickel)
Ham rolls (boiled ham & liverwurst)
Dunks (aka dips): sour cream, shrimp, chive, horseradish, guacamole, pimiento, tuna
---Martha Deane's Cooking for Compliments, Martha Young Taylor [M. Barrows:New York] 1954 (p. 13-35)
Soup & salad
Split pea soup
Easy chicken gumbo
Spicy tomato soup, Cream of tomato soup
Chicken and corn chowder
Pineapple fruit plate
Tomato stuffed with perfection salad
Bean (three-bean) salad
Orange-and-Bermuda onion salad
Melon boat salad
---Betty Crocker's Picture Cook Book, revised and enlarged, 2nd edition [McGraw-Hill:New York] 1956 (p. 377)
Mushroom or clam broth
Chicken (or beef, shrimp, crab) gumbo
Cream of celery soup
Chilled canned tomatoes
Lettuce or mixed salad with sour cream
Cucumber salad with French dressing
---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer [Bobbs-Merrill:Indianapolis] 1953
Cream of chicken
Cream of mushroom soup
Mixed green salad (French dressing or mayonnaise)
Stuffed tomatoes ravigote
Vegetables in sour cream
Potato salad (both hot and cold)
Gelatin & fruit salad molds (raspberry ring, grapefruit intrigue, sea siren salad)
---Martha Deane's Cooking for Compliments, Martha Young Taylor [M. Barrows:New York] 1954
Scalloped chicken supreme
Beef and corn casserole
Tuna-potato chip casserole
Savory meat pie
Welsh rarebit with tomato slices and little sausages
Swedish meat balls
Fluffy meat loaf
Baked ham with glaze
---Betty Crocker's Picture Cook Book, revised and enlarged, 2nd edition [McGraw-Hill:New York] 1956
Chicken a la king
Oysters baked in the half shell
Spaghetti with meat sauce
Turkey or chicken casserole with vegetables
Chicken pot pie
Chicken or veal croquettes
---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer [Bobbs-Merrill:Indianapolis] 1953
Ham and vegetable casserole
Sweet ham patties
Curried veal chops
Eggs foo young
Fricasseed trukey with wild rice
Lobster in patty shells
---Martha Deane's Cooking for Compliments, Martha Young Taylor [M. Barrows:New York] 1954
Often served with butter, cream sauce, sour cream sauce, canned soup; topped with bread crumbs, dried onion flakes
Buttered vegetables (canned or frozen)
Lima beans in sour cream
Mexican corn saute
---Betty Crocker's Picture Cook Book, revised and enlarged, 2nd edition [McGraw-Hill:New York] 1956
Mushrooms au gratin
Creamed onions (mushrooms, peas)
Potato volcano with cheese (mashed potato volcano!)
---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer [Bobbs-Merrill:Indianapolis] 1953
Green peas with sour cream
Baked acorn squash
Baked stuffed onions
Wax beans oriental (sweet and sour sauce)
---Martha Deane's Cooking for Compliments, Martha Young Taylor [M. Barrows:New York] 1954
Chiffon pie (lime, orange, pineapple, strawberry, chocolate)
Little pies (tart-sized portions of standard pies)
Peppermint candy cake
Maraschino cherry cake
Chocolate cherry cake
Banana chiffon cake
Easy caramel corn (made with General Mills cereals)
Marshmallow bars (made with General Mills cereals)
---Betty Crocker's Picture Cook Book, revised and enlarged, 2nd edition [McGraw-Hill:New York] 1956
Chocolate cake with white icing
Velvet spice cake
Ice cream with cherries
Gold layer cake with caramel icing
Banana chocolate cake
German cherry cake
Peppermint ice cream with chocolate sauce
---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer [Bobbs-Merrill:Indianapolis] 1953
Angel food custard
Quick butterscotch-chocolate pie
Maraschino cherry pudding
Broiled or baked grapefruit
Devil's cream cake
Melon balls and sherbert
Orange snow balls (hollowed orange halves packed with lemon sherbert)
---Martha Deane's Cooking for Compliments, Martha Young Taylor [M. Barrows:New York] 1954
Soda pop [in bottles if you can get it], Tang [this space drink is VERY 50s], fruit punch, fruit smoothies, milk shakes, hot cocoa, iced tea, coffee.
 Simple home menus (all include "a beverage.")
1. Orange juice, sauteed eggs and bacon, cinnamon toast
2. Apple juice, sausage-meat cakes, popovers, jelly
3. Chilled grapefruit, waffles, honey, cream
4. Sliced peaches, omelet or scrambled eggs, drop biscuits, marmelade
5. Tomato juice, French toast with applesauce
1. Broiled hamburger sandwiches, wilted lettuce, canned or stewed fruit
2. Cold sliced ham, hot potato salad, toast, applesauce
3. Pan-fried fish, broiled potates, tossed green salad with French dressing, muffins, grapefruit jelly
4. Chili con carne, creamed spinach, sweet muffins with nuts
5. French ham toast, avocado on lettuce with French dressing, gingersnaps
1. Meat balls with spaghetti, green peas, sliced oranges, peanut-butter cookies
2. Pigs in blankets, baked tomatoes with cheese, banana sherbet, butterscotch brownies
3. Salmon in casserole, potato chips, green salad with French dressing, lemon milk sherbet, chocolate-chip drop cookies
4. Eggplant filled with leftover foods, boiled carrots, hot rolls, preserves, quick method white cake with lemon icing
5. Pork chops with scalloped potatoes, French bread, Harvard beets, apple crunch"
---A Cookbook for Girls and Boys, Irma S. Rombauer [Bobbs-Merrill:Indianapolis] 1952 (p. 223-228)
, Good Housekeeping, June 1954
 Dinner party menus
Chilled Melon, Lobster Newberg in Croustades, Crown Roast of Lamb, Potatoes with Parsley Butter, Peas with Mint Cream, Chestnut Cream, Coffee
Hors d'oeuvres Tray, Relishes, Roast Turkey, Cranberry Jelly, Potato Puff, Spinach Ring with Baby Lima Beans, Grapefruit and Endive Salad, Vanilla Ice Cream with Tutti Fruitti, Small Cakes, Coffee
Consomme Bellevue, Relishes, Filet Mignon, Bordelaise Sauce, Chestnut Puree, String Beans with Celery, Mixed Green Salad, Chocolate Souffle, Coffee
Littleneck Clams, Relishes, Roast Duck, Orange Sauce, Wild Rice with Mushrooms, Buttered Asparagus, Bombe of Raspberry Ice and Vanilla Ice Cream, Small Cakes, Coffee
Oysters in the Half Shell, Roast Chicken, Whole Hominy with Sherry, Broccoli with Brown Crumbs, Macaroon Cream with Sliced Peaches, Coffee
Fish Fillets with Normandie Sauce, Roast Beef, Yorkshire Pudding, Braised Celery, Mixed Vegetable Salad, Mincemeat Turnovers, Coffee
Consomme Madrilene, Relishes, Baked Virginia Ham, Grilled Sweet Potatoes, Cauliflour with Lemon Butter, Romaine with Roquefort Dressing, Wine Jelly with Whipped Cream, Coffee"
---Silver Jubilee Super Market Cook Book, Edith Barber [Super Market Publishing:New York] 1955 (p. 37-8)
"Entertaining in Hollywood
Grace Kelly, winner of the Academy Award as the Best Moving Picture Actress of 1954, personally selected and sent us this menu as one of her favorites: Caviar blinis, duck a l'orange, French-style green beans, hearts of palm salad vinaigrette, fruit, cheese.
"After the Concert
Welsh rarebit or grilled cheese sandwiches, celery hearts, olives, chocolate cupcakes or brownies, bunches of grapes, sliced fresh pineapple or broiled grapefruit halves, coffee.
Individual cheese souffles with crabmeat sauce, asparagus vinaigrette, melba toast, Mr. John's French Beret pancake desert, coffee.
"Mother Goose party
Children are asked to come as some character from Mother Goose (Little Miss Muffet, Wee Willie Winkie, etc.). The mother of the child having the party, dressed as the Old Woman in the Shoe, welcomes the little guests as they arrive: Creamed chicken, mashed potatoes, buttered peas or carrots, lettuce sandwiches (cut in animal or flower shapes), ice cream, sponge cake, cocoa.
"Campfire or Girl Scout Cook-Out
Pocket stew, buttered split hard rolls, whole tomatoes, walking salad (washed fresh fruit in plastic bags), milk or cocoa, brownies."
---Betty Crocker's Picture Cook Book, revised and enlarged, 2nd edition [McGraw-Hill:New York] 1956 (p. 49-51)
, Mary Meade, Chicago Daily Tribune, August 13, 1950 (p. SW_D6)
, Clementine Paddleford, Los Angeles Times, September 10, 1950 (p. G14)
Both articles focus on homemade barbecue sauces.
"Eating outdoors is one of life's finest pleasures. It is not just a trick of the imagination that makes food smell and taste better under blue skies or under the stars. The fire in your grill and the freshness of the air add savor to every dish, whether it is served in a patio, a back yard, a picnic grove or on a stretch of sand or grass on lake, stream or ocean. Many people put a lot of time and money into assembling equipment for outdoor cookery and construction elaborate outdoor kitchens in their yards or patios. Though this can be fun for the ambitious handyman, it's not necessary. There are many portable grills and braziers on the market that will give you just as tasty a result as the most complicated 'made-to-order" job...The little Skotch Grille is one of the simplest and most practical on the market. It is small-12 inches high and 12 inches across-and easy to carry. It cooks with charcoal and the steaks, chops, hamburgers-or whatever you choose to cook-have that delicious flavor that only charcoal can give. The Skotch Grill can be used any place outdoors can be easily carried to picnics, on camping or hunting or fishing trips, and can be used at home in the fireplace...The Big Boy portable barbecue line includes everything from an 18-inch bowl-type charcoal brazier on wheels, at less than , up to a large barbecue unit, also on wheels, with seven motor-driven spits and a warming oven, at about 0...Another interesting small charcoal unit for outdoor or indoor cooking is the Japanese hibachi. If there is a Japanese store in your area, ask to see them there. These little grills have been used for centuries in Japan for preparing the delicious native barbecued dishes and sukiyaki...They are cast-iron tubs in little stands, many of which are quite decorative."
---Complete Book of Barbecue & Rotisserie Cooking, James Beard [Bobbs-Merrill Co.:Indianapolis] 1954 (p. 6-7)
[NOTE: Receipe index . Let us know which items you need!]
The Good Housekeeping Cook Book offers a chapter titled (p. 593-600). It offers tips for planning a barbecue, including equipment checklist (asbestos gloves, Monosodium glutamate!), practical notes (choose a menu to fit the grill's space, double-wrap foods in heavy-duty aluminum foil) and safety notes (never heat canned foods in the unopened can). Recommended meats include: big steaks, little steaks, king steak, salt-grilled sirloin steak, barbecued spareribs, heavenly hamburgers, hot franks, grilled ham, barbecued bologna roll, and and beef alfresco, kabobs, charcoal-grilled chicken, charcoal-grilled duckling, fish fries and barbecues, and shellfish alfresco. Fresh grilled vegetable recipes feature corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and mushrooms. Special instructions are provided for grilling canned and frozen veggies. Grilled breads were also popular. Good Housekeeping recommended grilled French & Italian breads, grill-baked breads, rolls and muffins, garlic-buttered slices and a variety of hot grilled sandwiches. Dessert could also be prepared on the grill. Popular items included caramel roast apples, walnut roast, fried marshmallows, baked bananas, and "Marshmallow Treats," (think: S'Mores).
"Barbecuing is fun...You're headed for a meal that's the best (says Dad), the easiest (says Mom), the happiest (say the kids...who know) yo ever pitched into. For wat-do-we-eat, see the next 9 pages loaded with ideas from tantalizing, wide-awake breakfasts to peaceful sunset suppers...
"Now Call the Gang...: Special Barbecued Ribs, Skillet Potatoes, Cabbage-Pepper Slaw, Buttered Salt Sticks, Big Strawberries for Dunking in Sour Cream or Confectioners' Sugar, Sparkling Iced Tea.
"Hawaiian Special: Honolulu Punch, Hawaiian Short Ribs, Chinese Fried Rice, Buttered Peas and Carrots, Avocado-Orange Salad with Fruit French Dressing, Toasty Cheese-topped Loaf, Tropical Parfait, Hot Coffee.
Twilight Buffet: Spiced Crabapple Kabobs, Perfect Fried Chicken, Hartwell Farm Corn Pudding, Hot Muffins, Polka-dot Fruit Cup (Blueberries, Raspberries and strawberries spirnked with coconut), Cheese Tray, Assorted Crackers, Hot Coffee.
Family Fresh-air Special: Sizzling Ham Slices, Foil-baked Tomatoes with Onion, Hot German Potato Salad, Slim-jim Bread Sticks, Warm Cherry Pie, Campfire Coffee, Mugs of Milk.
Friday Barbecue:...Grilled Fish Foldovers, Corn on the Cob, Western Salad Nowl, Garlic Dressing, Toast Cheese Bread, Lemon Serbet, Coffee.
Home-style Back-yard Supper: Warm-ups (heated potato chips or crackers on the grill), Grilled Minute Steaks Buns, Indian-style Corn on the Cog, Dutch Cucumbbers, Picked Beets, Chocolate Cake with Fudge Frosting, Ice Cream Cups, Limeade, Popcorn, Toasted Marshmallows.
When You Ask Folks Over: Seafood Fancy, Peas and Mushrooms, Summer Aspic, Water Cress and Cauliflowerets, Cheese Straws, Fresh Blueberry Tarts, Iced Tea.
Hot-off-the-grill Quickie: Ham Line-up Loaf (sandwich composed of French Bread, deviled ham, pickle relish & tomato slice; fillings inserted into thinly sliced bread, wrapped in foil, baked & served whole, Easier-than-falling-off-a-log French Fries ("With beverage-can opener, punch hole in top of French Fries or shoestring potatoes. Place can on grill and roll occasionally as it heats. Open and serve. Ditto for French-fried onions" p. 98), Green Onions, Radish Roses, Chocolate-chip Cookies, Tea Sparkle.
Teen-agers' Treat: Choo-choo Sandwich (French bread, tomatoes, cheese corned beef & green pepper rings...baked then covered in foil & grilled), 30-minute Baked Beans, Perfect Potato Salad, Relishes, Chocolate Malted Milk. He-man Breakfast Splurge: Icy Tomato or Orange Juice,, Frizzled Ham, Golden Hominy Scramble, Speedy Donughts for Coffee Dunking.
---Better Homes & Gardens Barbecue Book [Meredith Publishing Company:Des Moines IA] 1956 (p. 9-15)
House and Garden's Cook Book contains instructions for grilling the following items (p. 195-208): Churrasco (South American beef steak), Beefsteak Jerome LePlat (Italian recipe with Hollandaise sauce), Beefsteak Pizzaiola, Sliced Larded Filet on French Bread, Chateaubriand Marchand de Vin, Sate with Steak, Kebabs, Roast Leg of Lamb, Shoulder of Lamb, Lamb Steaks, Oriental Lamb Steaks (soy sauce & ginger), Ham Steak, Plain Hamburgers, Savory Hamburgers (w/chopped onions, olives & mushroom powder), Frankfurters, Grilled Italian Sausages, Spitted Roast Chicken, Chicken Tarragon, Garlicked Chicken, Ginger Chicken, Baby Chickens on a Spit, Sate Ajam-Chicken on the Spit (Indonesia), Grilled Chicken Hearts, Epicurean Broiled Turkey, Broiled Turkey Flambe, Broiled Duckling, Broiled whole Fish, Fish Mixed Grill, Rotisserie Veal with Kidneys, Roast Leg of Lamb Hong Kong, Shish Kebab, Pork Loin with Sherry, Pork Shoulder Robert, Loin of Pork California Style, Port Tenderloin Orleans, Spareribs Island Style (w/pineapple), Spareribs German Style (w/sauerkraut), Suckling Pig on a Spit, Roast Chicken Pierre (w/sherry), Chicken Far East (w/cashews & peanut butter), Long Island Duckling Gourmet and Goose Montmartre."
Woman's Day (magazine)
Lamb Roast, Indienne, with
Savory-mint Barbecue Sauce
Fruited Pilaf, Whole Tomatoes
Quick Vegetable Salad with Parsley Dressing
Buttered Crusty Bread Slices
Fruit Basket, Coffee."
"Come Over for Steak
Garlic French-bread Slices
Mixed Green Salad, Roquefort Dressing
Honeydew Melon with Lime Slice
---Family Circle, August 1957 (p. 51)
Charcoal-broiled Steak or Hamburger
French-fried Onions, Cold Bean Casserole
Cheese and Caraway French Bread
Peach and Apple Pie
---Woman's Day, June 1959
What did some 1950's women think about their husband's BBQ finesse?
"Does your husband love to put on a chef's hat when he is broiling a steak? Is he the only one who never forgets the sherry in the soup? Is his pet story about the time he cooked for the boys when they all went fishing? Then for goodness sake, give him a barbecue and watch his ego expand. And think what a conversation piece you've handed him. Interest in a barbecue can provide a substitute for those play-by-play descriptions of golf, football or fishing...Adding a barbecue to your household will provide an endless selection of gadgets to solve the gift problem of Christmas, birthday or anniversary. An amateur chef is always enthusiastic about a new prop for his act."
---The Queen is in the Kitchen: Informal Meals of all Kinds, Marguerite Gilbert McCarthy [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York] 1954 (p. 203)
(gin, sugar & champagne), mint julep, randy smash, planter's punch, rum Collins, Tom Collins, Scotch and soda, rye highball, the screwdriver."
---The New Wolf in Chef's Clothing: The picture cook and drink book for men, Robert H.Loeb, Jr. [Follett Publishing:Chicago] 1950 (p. 115-124)
"Cocktails, long cold drinks such as highballs, and beer are the favorites among the alcoholic beverages of this country. There are a few epicures who know and appreciate wines and who can distinguish among vintages. Most of us are content with serving sherry, vermouth, or Dubonnet before diner, and on special occasions offering an appropriate wine with a meal to which it adds enjoyment. Sometimes a brandy or a cordial will also be served after coffee. There are a few simple rules which should be followed in the service of beverages of this sort. The next few pages will be devoted to the question of what to serve, when, and how. For more detailed informaiton, I refer you to Along the Wine Trail, by G. Selmer Fougner, published by the Stratford Press, Boston, which contains accurate and practical information...There are actually hundreds of recipes for cocktails. You may go as far as you will in experimenting with them yourself, but be careful about offering a strange mixture to guests, unless you have the makings of other drinks on hand that are hand and are hospitable enough to allow them to choose something else. The two most popular before-dinner cocktails are Martinis and Manhattans. Next perhaps come old-fashioneds, whiskey sours, and daiquiris. If you make these according to the accepted practice, it will not be necessary to have any more on your list of standbys. Service of Cocktails: All cocktails except old-fashioneds are mixed with ice in a cocktail shaker, but some of them are stirred instead of shaken. If you have only one shaker, Martinis and Manhattans may be stirred and served in pitches from which they may be poured into the cocktail glasses in the living room. Old-fashioneds may be mixed at the bar, if you have one, or in the kitchen, which is easier, and where you generally have better results. They are brought to the living room on a tray. To serve the usual type of cocktail, arrange the glasses of standard size, which may have long or short stems, with the shaker on the tray. Small napkins should accompany them, and coasters may be offered with them if you are particular about rings on your mahogany. A tray of canapes, savory crackers, or an assortment of relishes should be offered with cocktails."
---Silver Jubilee Super Market Cook Book, Edith Barber [Super Market Publishing:New York]. Revised edition. 1955 (p. 84-5)
[NOTE: this book contains instructions for Daiquiris, Manhattans, Martinis, Old Fashioneds and Mint Juleps. It also contains notes on serving beer, selection and care of wines, and service of liqueurs. Happy to scan & send .]
These cocktails and alcoholic beverages are listed Irma Rombauer's Joy of Cooking, circa 1953:
Alexander, Artillery Punch, Beer & Ale, Benedictine, Bowl or Fruit Cup, Brittany, Bronx, Champagne, Claret Cup, Clover Club, Corree, Cuba Libre, Cubana, Curacao, Daiquiri (& frozen daiquiri), Eggnog, El Presidente, Frisco, Gin Bitter, Gin Sour, Gordon, Highball or Ricky, Knickerbocker, Larchmont, Manhattan (dry & medium), Martini (& dry martini), Miami, Milk Punch, Millionaire, Mint Julep, Old-Fashioned, Orange Blossom, Pradise, Pink Lady, Planter's Punch, Rum Collins, Hot Buttered Rum, Hot Rum Lemonade, Rum Punch, Sazerac, Sidecar, Stinger, Tom and Jerry, Tom Collins, Whiskey Cup, Whiskey Sour, Whiskey Toddy, White Lady, and Mulled Wine. (p. 966-7)
Food Timeline library owns Old Mr. Boston's De Luxe Bartender's Guide, 13th printing revised 1957. Happy to send selected pages. This book ends with "Bar Tricks section: 74 ways to entertain at the bar!" (p. 125-157).
Popular trends & new drinks:
"The greatest revolution of all...has been the change in the Martini. The first Martini was sweet drink but the classic formula for the drink as we know it today was two parts gin and one part French or dry vermouth. If you used that formula today you would more than likely lose a customer. This [Mr. B. Paul] attributes to the American insistence on making Martinis increasingly more dry. "There is no question that the most popular cocktail in the world today is the Martini. After that, the Old Fashioned. The English also have a liking for straight drinks such as pink gin, which is gin with a dash of Angostura bitters. The most popular drink in England is the gin and tonic; after that Scotch and after that the Martini." He added...many customers still ask for a Bronx cocktail, a drink made with equal parts gin, sweet vermouth and orange juice...."Then of course, there is the recent world rage for the Bloody Mary. It is a drink that has a particular appeal to women although men like it too. That and the screwdriver are the only two new drinks that have caught the public fancy in the last two decades." He added, too, that the social climate has changed radically within the last thirty years and this has accounted for some of the world's drinking habits...During this recent meeting of the International Bartenders Association there was a fierce competition among the members to concoct a new cocktail. The contest was won by a 27-year-old West Berliner, Dieter Waldman of the Hotel Kempinski. The recipe follows:
2 ounces grapefruit juice
1 ounce Bacardi rum
1 ounce Cointreau
Fill a cocktail shaker half full with cracked ice and add the liquid ingredients. Shake well and strain into two chilled cocktail glasses. Garnish each cocktail with a maraschino cherry. Yield: Two Servings."
---"Food: A Master Mixer, Cold Beer and Dry Martini Products of Times, Dean of Bartenders Says," Craig Claiborne, New York Times, November 6, 1959 (p. 33)
[NOTE: This article mentions Martini (dry), Gin & Tonic, Old Fashioned, Bronx Cocktail, Scotch, Bloody Mary]
What food to serve?
"It is important to have the beverages and the canapes compiment each other and with a little care in selection this can be accomplished...delicate floavors predominate champagne. Tart and salty blend best with gin, while these and heartier foods are more suitable for whisky and beer...keeping this in mind will help bring satisfaction to your guests. Champagne: Caviar, hearts of artichoke and shrimp tidbits, Swiss cheese and shrimp balls, chicken and cheese balls, chicken tarts, crabmeat puffs, chicken salad puffs, liver (paste) puffs, lobster balls, lobster puffs, egg and lettuce tidbits and stuffed endive. Highballs: Chipped beef rolls, bologna gherkin tidbits, stuffed celery, stuffed eggs, variety of cheese balls, cheese and deviled ham pinwheels, cream cheese pastry tarts, smoked salmon rolls, strips of crisp bacon, roast beef snacks, ham tidbits and pickle (dill) and cheese snacks. Sherry: Apple, raisin and cream cheese balls, bacon balls, chipped beef rolls with mushrooms, stuffed mushrooms, peanut rolls, peanut butter rolls, peanut butter tarts, nut and stem ginger tarts, ham tidbits, chicken, lobster or liver paste puffs, turnovers, cheese straws, sausage tidbits and smoked hickory cheese balls. Whisky cocktails: Alligator pear spread, anchovy fillet tidbits, bacon and curried peanut butter rolls, East Indian beef balls, clam spread tidbit, pizzas--miniature, smoked oysters in blankets, Camembert cheese and ham tarts, chicken livers and bacon, roast beef snacks, kippered herring and bacon rolls and meat balls (beef in blankets). Gin cocktails: Aligaro pear spread, anchovy ham rolls, artichoke bottoms, asparagus tips in ham rolls, onion and cheese snacks, onion egg snacks, stuffed olives, codfish balls with cheese, sardine onion snacks, sausage in blankets, sardine macaroni snacks, stuffed dill pickles and marinated vegetables. Beer: Anchovy fillet tidbits, stuffed olives, cheese straws, turnovers, cocktail frankfurters and sauerkraut, garlic popcorn, cheese balls, chipped beef and sardine rolls, kippered herring and bacon rolls and tongue rolls or pinwheels."
---501 Easy Cocktail Canapes, Olga de Leslie Leigh [Thomas Y. Crowell:New York] 1953 (p. 5-6)
[Compare with: .]
Television posed new challenges with timing (serving meals between "favorite shows") and location (TV trays in the living room). Period entertainment guides reveal a subtle ambivalence toward the affect of television on family life. Trendsetters embraced television, planning entire around the set. Savvy companies marketed novel lines of self-contained and .
Did television really "kill" the dinner hour, or did it facilitate an emerging meal pattern? Period newspapers promoted (get out of the dining room!). Pop up dining happened inside and out: verandas, porches, back yards, and television rooms. The passsage below appears to bemoan the "intrusion" of television on family meals. Reading beween the lines, one senses a collective sigh parental relief. Cooking & serving two settings (early for kids, later for adults) cavoided the stress of timing one family table. Kids were hungry long before commuting dads returned home. Dad needed some time to decompress when he arrived home from the office. The free "babysitter" in the living room may have been more welcome than nuisance. Before, during, and after dinner. Was dining in front of the TV the "norm?" Hard to say. Print media focuses on popular trends and new products.
"Television--the Permanent Dinner Guest
The most demanding guest ever to enter the American home is Television. It has disorganized family life, thrown tradition to the winds and as for the dinner hour, it is ignored completely. Even discipline has been turned over to Television--the mere suggestion of being banished from a favorite program is enough to bring the most unrully child into line. Yet try as you may, you can't squeeze Television into the old set of rulles. You can plan dinner at six and nothing happens--all eyes and ears are glued to the screen. You moan like a martyr, you deliver an ultimatum, but it gains you nothing. Far better to outsmart the situation and join the ranks of enthusiasts. 'But how can I feed the children in time for their program yet avoid a hectic, hurried meal when Dad gets home from the office?' you ask. It can be done! Preparing one dinner and serving two takes a certain amount of planning, that is at first. But once you get on to it, it can become an automatic routine. It is simply a matter of preparing one recipe but using two bowls or serving dishes or dividing the food between individual baking dishes...Hamburgers can be seasoned and shaped for two dinners, wrapped in waxed paper or foil and stored in the refrigerator until time to be fried or broiled. Even your tossed green salad can be mixed at one time yet with no danger of you and Dad being fed the left-overs. Just toss together the desired selection of greens, towl and chill until ready to be mixed with the dressing...The double boiler can be used when reheating vegetables cooked ahead of time or for keeping them hot for the second serving... Serving meals while viewing television is no problem, that is if you use trays. (Trays are one investment which pay for themselves over and over again.) The kind I use are made from pressed paper or composition board. They are inexpensive, durable, weigh practically nothing and are finished to look like fine-grained wood; also they are liquor-prrof. You may decide to invest in a few of the larger size trays, large enough to hold a casserole, serving dish and salad bowl. These allow your entire dinner to be moved from kitchen to living room at one time and on one tray. In my kitchen I keep my flatware and napkins convenient to the place where the trays are stored. It takes only a minute to set them up along 'the buffet' which is the name given to the open counter between the upper and lower cupboards in my kitchen...Now that we've arranged everything, where will your family or guests eat; where will they put their trays? I shudder to think you would expect them to balance a tray on their knees. Your answer is tables. My daughter usus a huge coffee table placed in front of her television set. A similar idea but a differently constructed table is built like a long ench and is covered with individual cushions. It is a perfect seat for viewing television. When the cushions are placed on the floor (Oriental fashion) as seats, the table is then ready for dining. You could build such a table yourself by using a 2 foot wide plywood door, with iron legs and cushions of foam rubber. Or perhaps individual tables would be more to your liking? If so, invest in one of those sets of four which hang from a rack or else a nest of tables which may be stored on inside the other. For the children's use, probably the cheapest answer would be those metal trays with legs attached--they are lightweight and colllpase for storing. As the clock strikes the hour, each child balances a tray and the processions moves into the realm of make-believe. You and Dad sink into comfortable chairs--far from the blare and blatt of the children's program--and enjoy a few minutes of peace and quiet as you sip your cocktails. Later, as you dine in front of your program, you realize that at last your goal has been reached--the family has found happiness under its own roof."
---The Queen is in the Kitchen: Informal Meals of all Kinds, Marguerite Gilbert McCarthy [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York] 1954 (p. 3-5)
Suburban family bliss?
"How log has it been since you have had a glamourous evening alone with our husband? A whole evening full of talk, good food, candlelight, soft music, and maybe a bottle of light, chilled wine. it sounds wonderful, doesn't it, but the budget is too trained and it's so difficullt to find someone to stay with the children. Then what about a do-it-yourself project! Here's how it works in our house. Late in that afternoon I do all the preliminary cookinng, set the coffee table in the living room with a pretty cloth, my best china; and silver, and the candelabra from the mantle, and stakc the phonograph with record. After I have bathed the children and helped them into their pajamas, I spend a little extra effort on my own dressing and make-up..By the time my husband comes home at 6 o'clock, I am dressed and relaxed and the children are happily eating a tray supper in front of the television set. This is a treat for them, especially when they are served hamburgers, fruit salad, carrot sticks, and an ice cream bar for dessert. They consider this menu a real party and what could be easier for Mother. When the children finish their supper they usually go upstairs to watch Daddy shave and tell him about their day. Then he reads them a story and tucks them into bed. This gives me time to broil a steak, mix the green salad, and dress the baked potatoes with sour cream and chives. While I bring the dinner into the living room on a large tray, my husband pours the wine, lights the candles, and flicks the switch on the phonograph. Now there we are, away from the distractions of television, children, and friends, with time to really talk. Food never has tasted better...And what will this glamourous evening cost? A little extra effort and planning on your part, and a few dollars for the steak and wine. We do this once aa week and the children have come to call it 'Mommy and Daddy's party night,' which indeed it is."
---"A Do-It-Yourself Project: Glamour Evening at Home," Barbara Hubbard, Chicago Daily Tribune, May 20, 1956 (p. F1)
"When I started this article I intended to write about the many uses we have found in our family for those familiar folding trays on legs, called TV trays, or snack trays. Our set of four was given to us one Christmas by my husband's parents and they are perhaps the most used and useful furniture in our home. I keep them in the kitchen, one always set up ready for action next to the rocking chair, and the other three reclining in the holder. I often set my light lunch or breakfast on the tray to enjoy a solitary meal of eating and reading. The children can setup up the trays quicker than I can say 'Captain Kangaroo,' when they have permission to eat a late summer's breakfast or a lunch in front of the TV set. The trays are handy when buffet service for company is the order of the evening...This summer our six-year-old has become a chef, with the aid of packaged mixes. Since our kitchen counters weren't built for pint-sized cooks, some lower working level had to be found. That's right--the TV trays! There he can mix, stir, add water and open eggs to his delight...So thanks to TV trays and packaged mixes our by has found an interesting, profitable pastime."
---"Our Useful TV Tras," Peggy Case Paulus, Christian Science Monitor, August 14, 1959 (p. 17)
Compare with: .
1. Mom's kitchen
USA housewives embraced the "emergency pantry" stocked with canned foods for economy & expediency from early 20th century forwards. Recipes incorporatiing commercial products proliferated in the "make do" 1930s & 1940s. They were promoted by food companies (corporate kitchens) & community cook books. When the dean of American cuisine acknowledged the expediency of the Emergency Pantry for in How to Eat Better for Less Money, (1954) American housewives drew a collective sigh of validated relief. James Beard offered recipes for Curry in a Hurry, Pizza & Kidney Bean Chili (but not Tuna Noodle Cassrole... interesting). Happy to scan/share.
2. Cold War survival
Stocking food in a family's bomb shelter engaged a different set of culinary objectives. , c. 1953
. Type the name of these four restaurants (one at a time) in the "restaurant' box : Stan's, Brown Derby, Carnation, Vern's. The database will return entire menus.
Based on the menus above, we suggest you serve: hamburgers/cheeseburgers, hot dogs, tuna fish sandwiches, fried chicken, pizza (make your own on English muffins or French bread), French fries, potato chips, pretzels, corn chips, , malted milk, milk shakes, ice cream floats, ice cream sundaes ("make your own" is always a fun activity), cola, root beer, lemonade.
If you want to recreate a "Drive In" menu, we recommend: The American Drive-In: History and Folklore of the Drive-In Restaurant in American Car Culture/Michael Karl Witzel and Car Hops and Curb Service: A History of American Drive-In Restaurants 1920-1950 Jim Heimann. Both books are full of pictures (great for decorating ideas) and sample menus. Your local public librarian will help you obtain these books.
Sugar Pops (Kelloggs)
Minute Rice (General Foods
Lawry's Seasoned Salt (Lawry's)
Legal Seafoods (Boston-based restaurant chain)
Dunkin' Doughnuts (fast food chain)
Ore-Ida Foods (frozen potato products)
(Nebraska Consolidated Mills)
Tropicana Products (Florida orange juice)
Jack-in-the-Box (fast food chain restaurant)
Taco Bell (fast food mexican restaurant)
No-Cal Ginger Ale (Kirsch Beverages)
Sugar Frosted Flakes (Kellogg's)
Pream non-dairy creamer (M & R. Dietetic Laboratories)
Ms. Paul's Fish Sticks
Lawry's Original Spaghetti Sauce Mix (Lawry's)
Sugar Smacks (Kellogg's)
Pepperidge Farm butter cookies
(San Francisco's Buena Vista Cafe)
Denny's (restaurant chain)
Star-Kist (canned tuna)
Eggo Frozen Waffles
Trix (General Mills)
Butterball Turkeys (Swift-Eckrich CO.)
Stouffer's frozen meals (Stouffer)
Nonfat dry milk (Carnation Co.)
Burger King (fast food chain)
Shakey's Pizza (fast food chain)
Peanut M&Ms (Hershey's)
Marshmallow Peeps(Just Born)
Special K breakfast food (Kellogg's)
Pepperidge Farm cookies (Bordeauz, Lido, Milano, Orleans)
McDonalds (Kroc style)
Kentucky Fried Chicken (Colonel Sanders)
Imperial margarine (Lever Brothers)
TreeSweet Products (fruit juices)
Certs (breath mints)
Gino's (fast food chain)
Pam (nonstick cooking spray)
Refrigerated cookie dough (Pillsbury)
[orange-flavored breakfast drink]
Ruffles [potato chips]
Rice-A-Roni [packaged flavored rice product]
Williams-Sonoma [upscale cookware retailer]
Sweet 'n Low [sugarless sweetener]
Cocoa Puffs [breakfast cereal, General Mills] Jif [peanut butter]
[instant noodle product, Nissen Foods]
Instant Tea [Lipton]
Pizza Hut [franchise restaurants]
International House of Pancakes (IHOP) [restaurant chain]
Royal Crown Cola
Frosty O's (General Mills)
Ocean Spray brand products (name changed from National Cranberry Assn)
Haagen-Dazs Ice Cream
--SOURCES: The Food Chronology, James Trager [Owl Books:New York] 1995 & The Century in Food: America's Fads and Favorites, Beverly Bundy [Collectors Press:Portland OR] 2002 & Candy: The Sweet History, Beth Kimmerle [Collectors Press:Portland OR] 2003
), Great Western American Cream Sherry ( also Burgundy, Sauternes, Chablis, Port, Tawny Port, Rhine Wine, Claret, Tokay and Sweet or Dry Vermouth & free booklet offer Chafing Dish Dining, Mrs. Charles D. Champlin, Wine Counselor), Purity Cheese Company Maybud brand (Gouda, Baby Gouda, Edam, Port Salud, Hickory Smoked Edam, Mel-o-Pure, rounds presumably wrapped in wax), Weaver's Famous Lebanon Bologna [PA] (.50 brings you a 3 1/2 lb. Famous Lebanon Bologna), Wines of California (with free California Wine Selector Wine Recipes booklet), Reed & Barton's sterling silverware (Tara pattern), Remy Martin Congac, Contreau, Piper Heidsieck Brut Champagne, Plaza Hotel restaurants, NYC (Persian Room, The Rendez-vous, Edwardian Room (new), Oak Room, Oak Bar & Palm Court), Tribuno Vermouth, Baccarat (wine glasses, Rebelaise, .00/dozen), Ac'cent (flavor enhancer), Maryland Market Capehens (also Squab Broilers, Rock Cornish Hens, Squab Guinea Hens, mail order), Grill-Aid Ozark Cured Hickory Smoked Hams (.40/lb, mail order), Widmer's New York State Cocktail Sherry, Hennessey Cognac Brandy, Bell's Special Reserve Scotch, Sanderman's Dry Don Port, Cook 'N' Tools [OK] Cook 'N' Kettle ("is the world's finest charcoal cooker. No Muss...No Fuss and all hits and no misses for Cook 'n' Boss without his Mrs...It's Different-- Cast Iron Gives Uniform Heat, It's Simple...Cooks without Flame for One or a Dozen...It's Easy...self cleaning, Self sterilizing... It's Distinctive...Seals in Juices, Creates Delicious Flavor from Fat Drippings and Smoke. Complete Unit includes: Lifetime Kettle and Lid, Hamburber Grill, 'Barrow-Cart, Two Tables, Three Stainless Cook 'n' Tools, Complete Instructions, Recipe Folder...Complete as shown (picure included) only .50..."), Gypsy Hill Farm [MO] Long-Cut Country Missouri Ham & Premium Hickory Smoked Bacon (mail order), Bollinger French Champagne, Alexander's Dandi Dinmont Light Bodied Blended Scotch Whisky, Lancer's Crackling Carbonated Vin Rose (wine), Heineken's Beer, Almaden California Grenache Rose, O'Connor's Mocha & Java (ground coffee in tin), Gourmet's Guest Club Directory, Penthouse, Hotel Plaza NYC (membership permits "charging" meals & drinks, application requires name, address, company name, bank & 2 other charge accounts for reference), Roquefort Association (cheese)), Becco French candies (individully wrapped, "each with an intricate 'inlaid' design that goes clear through), Lefevre-Utile Lu Biscuits from France (photo of box and biscuit), Port de Salut, Edward Artzner Foie Gras de Strasbourg (imported by Heublein), Liebig dehydrated soup mix (Onion, Vichyssoise, Pea-and-bacon, Minestrone, Cream of Asparagus, Cream of Mushroom, Alphabet Consomme, Cream of Chicken, Chicken Noodle, Cream of Tomato, Chicken Consomme), Liebig deluxe concentrated soups in cans, with water added, make four to six tasty portions. A gourmet's delight! (Bouillabaise, Lobster bisque, Onion, Vichyssoise, Marmite Henri IV, Pot-au-Feu, Normandy Fish Chowder, Potee du Perigord, Chicken with Rice, Ox tail, Cream of Asparagus, Cream of Mushroom, Cream of Tomato, Vegetable), PC Sardines (Brittany catch, packed in virgin olive oil from Nice, spiced with bay leaf, and aged for 3 years. Try the 1952 catch--NOW!), Harvey's Bristol Dry Sherry, Courvoisier Cognac, Roayl Verkade of Holland Mocca Stricks ("famous for Biscuit Specialties with that Continental Touch...Frambesca, Spriits Roundies, Cafe Noir, Speculaas, Chocolate Sticks..., individually wrapped, photo), Menth Hi-Bols ("Delicious New drink...the hit of Hollywood...1 jigger BOLS Creme de Menthe (60 proof), Ice cubes, Fill with White Rock soda), Droste Pastilles (candies), Heneiken beer, Bauer brand Cooked Ham (tin), Martinson's coffee, Dom Perignon champagne, Island View Wild Cherry Barbecue Smoke Stix (also avialable in Sugar Maple, Butternut & Hickory), Tio Pepe Dry Sherry, Conchita Guava Paste, Sun Brand Major Grey's Chuntney, Hills Petit Pours (cello-wrap, made in Washington DC, sold in "fine food stores"), Spice Islands Beau Monde Seasoning, Forst's Catskill Mountain Smoked Turkey (mail order, whole turkey), Lowrance Quail Farm [MO] (mail order, full-size quail, frozen), Wild Acres Turkey Farm (mail order gift packages). Mille\ Lacs Maple Products Wild Rice Pancakes (mail order, "new ready-mix of wild rice, buckwheat & wheat"), Meeker's Boneless Smoked Turkey Rolls, Sexton Old English Mince Meat (glass jar, for baking), Barengo Red Wine Vinegar, Ozark Mountian Famous Ready-to-Eat Hickory-Smoked Turkeys and Hams (mail order), Beefeater Gin, Pleasure Chest beef products (mail order steaks, frozen), BV Wines, Ashbach Urlat Rhine Brandy, Gala Danish Cooked Hams (tins, cookied in French Champagne, Burgundy Wine, Danish Cherry Wine, Tawny Port Wine, Spanish Sherry, Scotch Whiskey), Gala Smorgasbord dips (Curry, Herring & Betts, Danish Cheese), Hala Cocktail Flowers (canape crackers "beautifully shaped to petal design," tin), Gourmet Cookbook & Bouquet de France,/ Samuel Chamberlain (cookbook), Blue Nun Liebfraumilch (1945-1950), Filler Product's Bake-N-Krisp Fried Bacon Rinds, Mumm's Champagne, Julius Wile Sons Escoffier Sauce (Sauce Diable, Sauce Robert, Sauce Melba, glass bottles), Holland House Dry Martini Mix, Fernet-Branca Italian Stomachic Bitters, Marzetti's famous salad dressings (Slaw, French, Italian, mail order), Reese Piff-O-Puff (tinned canape spreads: onion, bacon, chese, tomato, garlic & shrimp), Inglenook Estate Bottled wines (Napa Valley CA), Wente White Wines, BinB Mushrooms (canned, recipe fro Hi-Hat Eggs), Raffetto Nesslefo Dessert Sauce Supreme (glass jar, "imported Marrpons and selected fruits blended in a fine Rum Punch. Ready to serve. You'll thrill to its unique flavor with ice cream, vanilla pudding, and in Nesslero Pie), Reuland Electric Company, Little Scout electric Smoke House (home cooker), Happ's St. Croix Trading Post Wild Rice [MN], Torino Fine Foods (olive oil & wine vinegar), Daggar Jamaica Rum, Gourmet magazine subscription (1 year, .00, 3 years, .00...single issue, news stand price: 50 cents), Hiram Walker's Cordials (Orange Curacao, Creme de cacao, Creme de Menthe, Apricot Liqueur, Cherry Liqueur, Rock and Rye, Black berry Fruit Flavored Brandy, Triple Sec, Kummel & recipe for Strawberries Romanoff), Rhinegold Extra Dry Beer (featuring photo of Mancy Woodruff, Miss Rheingold 1955)
Wrap all your late 1955+'s leftovers in aluminum foil. Why? Because America no longer had to divert metal to the war cause!
In the United States, the 1960s was a stormy decade shaped by the clash of conforming tradition and radical change. Culinary wise? WWII rationing was a distant memory, 50s casseroles were old & boring. The 60s encouraged showy, complicated food with French influence (Julia Child, Jacqueline Kennedy), suburban devotion (backyard barbecues), vegetarian curiosity (Frieda Caplan) and ethnic cuisine (soul food, Japanese Steak houses). This was also the decade of flaming things (fondue & Steak Diane) and lots and lots of junk food (aimed at the baby boom children). "Average" suburban families patronized family-style restaurant chains like Howard Johnson's. The first Wendy's restaurant opened in 1969.
- Fashionable Food: Seven Decades of Food Fads, Sylvia Lovgren
- The Century in Food: America's Fads and Favorites, Beverly Bundy
- Mastering the Art of French Cooking/Julia Child
from spiral bound The Pillsbury Family Cook Book [Harper & Row:New York] double as social study. What do the menu names reveal about homemaker/hostess expectations? Witness:
Company Brunch, Luncheon for a New Neighbor, Bridge Club Luncheon, A Teen Committee Meets for Lunch, Daughter's Gift-Dinner on Mother's Day, Friday Special, A Diner to Finish After Five-Thirty, A Hot Dinner for A Cold Day, Guests for Sunday Dinner After Chruch, Career Girl's Company Dinner, Casual Dinner Outdoors (2 menus), Dinner After the Holidays, Briday Shower Buffet, High School Graduation Buffet, Late Snack After the School Play.
 Upscale urban entertaining menus from the New York Times
The following menus are suggested by theNew York Times Menu Cook Book, Craig Claiborne [Harper & Row:New York] 1966 (p. 44-48).
"A small cocktail party
Camembert amandine, cucumber spread, crackers and toast rounds, cocktail croquettes, mushroom strudels.
A large cocktail party
Buttered nuts, chicken-liver pate, toast rounds and crackers, mushroom-stuffed eggs, tuna-stuffed eggs, cheese straws and twists, wild-rice pancakes, cream-cheese pastry turnovers, meat filling, cherry tomatoes, green and ripe olives.
Lunch for a football game
Bean and olive soup (in an insulated container), ham and cheese hero, mustard butter, egg and tomato hero, carrot and fennel sticks, apples, nutmeg date bars, beer, coffee.
A graduation luncheon
Fruit punch, buttered nuts, olive-stuffed eggs, salmon eggs Montauk, chicken and rice casserole, spinach and sesame seeds, strawberries, custard sauce, lemon chiffon cake.
A children's party
Carrot sticks, grilled frankfurters on toasted rolls, Raggedy Ann salad, chocolate cake, frozen fruit chunks, watermelon punch.
A birthday supper party
Tomatoes stuffed with chicken livers, potato-cheese Charlotte, avocado and grapefruit salad, dry white wine, custard ice cream, birthday butter cake."
1960s buffet notes & menus
"Buffet food should be notable. For hot buffets, there are many marvelous things to serve as a change from the good, but too familiar, Boston baked beans and spaghetti with meat sauce. However, if spaghetti is what you want, serve it in special style, with a brand-new sauce.
Baked chicken breasts supreme, savory stuffed mushrooms, peach Waldorf salad, hot cheese biscuits, creme-de-menth parfait, coffee.
Our best cucumbers in sour cream, sirloin tips en brochette, white rice with onions, carrots in mustard glaze, fresh peas oregano, baba au rhum, tea.
Beef in burgundy with gnocchi, herb-buttered zucchini and carrots, green-salad bowl, rolls, pears sabayon, jewel cookies, coffee, tea.
Chicken curry on white rice with raisins, curry accompaniments (chutney, salted peanuts, coconut, kumquats), sesame rolls, raspberry sherbet, coffee, tea."
---McCall's Cook Book, McCalls [Random House:New York] 1963 (p. 716)
International theme buffet menus:
"Quick Oriental Dinner: Egg rolls, fried shrimp, sweet & sour shrimp sauce, red mustard sauce, speedy chicken chow mein, Chinese fried rice, soy sauce, preserved kumquats, oriental salad, Mandarin orange dessert, coconut macaroons, green tea. NOTE: give your guests chopsticks.]
Smorgasbord: Swedish relishes and breads, Swedish meat balls, brown beans, deorated chilled ham, dill potatoes, vegetable cups, red-and-white salad, Swedish pancakes with lingonberry sauce, caraway seed cheese, toasted wafers, Swedish coffee.
Mexican Fiesta: Mexican relish tray, turkey-stuffed tamales, cheese enchiladas, Mexican fried rice, chiles rellenos, tomato sauce, fried tortillas, caramel custard, hot coffee.
Casual Curry Buffet: Shrimp curry, yellow rice, curry condiments, romaine salad, chilled orange sections, coconut chips, hot tea.
Italian Supper: Antipasto tray, lasagne, pizza or spaghetti, Italian green salad, Italina long loaf or bread sticks, spumone or cherry ice cream, coffee.
Island Feast: Water chestnuts with chicken livers, Kona chicken, steamed rice, batter-fried shrimp with sauces, Chinese peas with water chestnuts, Waikiki salad, raspberry sherbet with coconut, beach boy punch. [NOTE: Trader Vic's made Polynesian food very popular in the 1960s.]
Casual buffets, American style
Skillet Chicken Supper: Chicken in jiffy tomato sauce, buttered broccoli, fruit platter, hot French bread, refrigerator cheese pie, hot coffee.
Party-best Buffet:: Tomato refresher, beef Stroganoff, yellow rice, ambrosia molds, crisp relishes, brown-and-serve hard rolls, pink confetti pie or easy chocolate eclairs, coffee."
---Better Homes & Gardens Holiday Cook Book: Special Occasions, [Meredith Press:New York] c. 1959, sixth printing, 1967.
Buffet-style Suppers, main course casseroles:
Lasagne, Fancy chicken a la king, Turkey Parisian, Chicken-rice bake, Salmon Tetrazzini, Jiffy turkey paella, Veal parmesan with spaghetti, Burgundy beef stew, Swedish meatballs, Pizza supper pie, hamburger pie, Church-supper tuna bake, Pork chop suey bake. "
---Better Homes and Gardens Casserole Cook Book, .
Planning a 60s-style backyard barbecue?
The Better Homes and Gardens Barbecue Book  features beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and seafood. For parties this book suggests shish-kebabs (have your guests design their own!), Hawaiian short ribs (sweet marinade and pineapple), "party burgers" (pizza burgers, stuffed hamburgers, deviled beef patties, served on grilled italian bread), meatloaf (filled with vegetables & cheese, sliced & served as burgers), rock lobster tails, and grilled shrimp. Popular marinades/grilling/dipping sauces include: barbecue sauce (ranging in heat from mild to fire!) teriyaki, herb & honey, and sweet & sour. Foil meals (all ingredents cooked together wrapped tightly in aluminum foil are also popular. Recipes include Campfire Pot Roast (beef & vegetables), Patio Fiesta Dinner (ground beef, vegetables...corn, lima beans, onions, green peppers, tomato puree, American cheese, chili powder) served with corn chips. Standard accompainments were tossed salad (preferably served in wooden bowls), vegetable salads (potato, coleslaw), pickles (cucumbers, beets) and grilled bread (garlic Italian a favorite). Dessert: Ice cream, fruit-bobs (fruit on a stick, brushed with butter & broiled on the grill), pineapple on a spit, barbecued bananas, served with a cheese tray. Beverage service? Iced coffee, punch (featuring tropical flavors, made frozen concentrate), iced tea, lemonade and limeade.
"Women weren't really liberated until the coming of that grand national free-for-all, the cocktail hour. Before Prohibition, bars had been one-sex affairs. A woman might sneak into the side door of a saloon to have her pitcher filled with lager and then go home to drink it alone. More respectable matrons would be escorted by gents into the Ladies' Cafe for an occasional ginger beer or port flip. During Prohibition any girl who dran was, of course, a dangerous piece of sweetmeat...With Repeal...women ripped loose like corks bursting in a champagne cellar. Crusty bartenders stood aghast as women, alone or with men, boldly walked into bars, grabbed pretzels and demanded extra-dry martinis. From busy offices, girls came home not to toll the knell of the parting day but to reach for the ice bucket. Hotels hastily set up restricted men's bars in defense that new female encroachment, the cocktail lounge... If you're the garrulous type, don't act as your own bartender...hire a bartender...If you're having a large cocktail party for a single occasion, you can get you glassware, tables, chairs, etc., by either borrowing or renting them from a regular catering service. If you give cocktail parties frequently, you should naturally own the necessary equipment for this greatest of twighlight sports. When the cocktail party is a small informal affair in which four or six friends get together for a few slugs of whisky before dinner, no major alterations are necessary in your furniture or fixtures....For a crowded come-and-go cocktail party, the best plan is to remove all chairs from the room. A no-chair party discourages stragglers and unwanted overnight campers. Your cocktail party will then be that rare kind of hour which is confined to sixty minutes. If, however, you are expecting the pretzel-benders to stay several hours, you should provide straight-back chairs lined up against the wall with an occasional table between chairs lined up against the wall with an occasional table between chairs for ash trays and empty glasses...The most important equipment at any cocktail party is the glassware. Drinking a martini out of a thin piece of crystal and then out of a thick pressed glass makes the same mixture seem like completely different potions...The most popular mixers used in highballs include plain water, sparkling (carbonated) water, and some variety of a sweeter elixer like ginger ale. Fussy drinkers will demand a bottled water rather than the tap product, especially in those cities where chlorine is used heavily."
---Playboy Gourmet: a food and drink handbook for the host at home, Thomas Mario [Playboy Press:Chicago IL] 1961 (p. 292-294)
"The ever popular cocktail party is an inferior form of entertainment at best, and there is a tendency to make it formal on occasional--something it was never meant to be. By all means have your house looking its best, use your best crystal and china, and have the food impeccably turned out, but don't be chi-chi. The results may be silly. Unless they are small gatherings around a tray with bottles and ice, cocktail parties should be planned so that the service is efficient a d quick. Don't try to set up a professional bar in your house unless you have a barman to go with it, and you will need two if it is a largish party, and more if it is the 'annual crush,' which so many people use as a way to pay their social debts (and it is not really a very polite way). A large party will also need someone to tidy up from time to time. Some guests love to trail through a party leaving a wake of glasses, napkins and cigarette messes. if you must do with a minimum of help or none at all, serve three varieties of drinks--and make good drinks--rather than attempt to offer a selection. The same holds true of cocktail food. Better to have two memorable snacks than hundreds of undistiguished canapes. In the menus provided here there is usually one item or two of substantial food. It goes without saying that the food should be attractive to look at and tasty as well. While the cocktail party is the most popular way of entertaining it can also be the most difficult, since there is so much going on all at once. Don't make your drinks too weak, or your party won't be very lively. Neither make them too generous, or you will have a bunch of drunks on your hands. Plan four drinks per person, and have some supplies in reserve. Neither the host nor the hostess should drink unless it is something light. To give a good party you must be on the alert, though you appear to be entirely at ease. What a delight if can be to settle down later with your shoes off and have a few drinks in peace and quiet."
---James Beard's Menus for Entertaining, facsimile 1965 reprint [Dell Trade:New York] 1986 (p. 229)
[NOTE: Selected menus from Mr. Beard's book .]
"Come for Cocktails. Gayest way to entertain lots of friends is the cocktail party. A good cocktail party whould have good drinks, good food, compatible people, and room enough to circulate a bit. The food should never be sweet, but should certainly be highly seasoned. We favor a 'menu' hearty enough to substitute for a meal, since cocktail parties often span the dinner hour...Have lots of ashtrays, and put them everywhere. And, if possible, have about twice as many glasses as guests; otherwise, you'll be washing glasses during most of the party. Put coasters on every flat surface that could be harmed by moisture. If possible, have separate tables for the drinks and the food. Try to put the drink table in a place where traffic an move freely to avoid unnecessary spills. Paper napkins, in assorted bright colors, look like bouquets if you furl and mass them in little wooden baskets around the room. Wooden picks, used for dipping foods, stick decoratively into pretty fruit arrangements...Topiary trees made from edibles such as cherry tomatoes, green or ripe olives, marinated shrimp, are decorative additions to the food table, or may be spotted around the room. A nice touch is the coffee service later on for your helpers and any stragglers."
---McCall's Cocktail-Time Cookbook, McCalls magazine [Advace Publishers:Orlando FL] 1965 (p. 3)
Standard 1960s cocktail beverages:
The Calvert Party Encyclopedia [c. 1960] states these are favorite drinks: Whiskey Highball, Manhattan, Whiskey Sour, Old Fashioned, Gin 'N' Tonic, Dry Martini, Tom Collins, Gin Rickey, Daiquiri (frozen), Rum 'N' Cola (Cuba Libre), Rum Collins, Planter's Punch.
Martinis, Manhattans, Daiquiries, Old Fashioneds, Sidecars, Jack Roses, Whisky Sours, Clover Clubs and Bloody Marys.
---Playboy Gourmet: a food and drink handbook for the host at home, Thomas Mario [Playboy Press:Chicago IL] 1961 (p. 295-297)
These coxktails are listed in The Joy of Cooking/Irma Rombauer, 1962 edition (p. 29-32):
Gin: Alexander, Bronx, Gimlet, Gin Bitter, Gin or Whisky Sour, Perfect Martini, Martini, Pink Lady, White Lady.
Whisky: Perfect Manhattan, Manhattan, Old-Fashioned, Sazerac.
Rum: Benedictine, Cubana, Daiquiri, Blender Frozen Daiquiri, El Presidente, Knickerbocker.
Brandy: Champagne Cocktail, Curacao Cocktail, Sidecar, Stinger.
Vodka & Tequila: Bloody Mary, Margarita.
"Choose your beverage to suit the occasion and the weathter. On a cold, blustery night a tangy, hot drink will be welcomed, but if it's hot outdoors, a tall, cool cocktail with plenty of crushed ice is in order. By the same token, if a full-course dinner is to follow, keep the cocktail beverage on the light side; if it's holiday time, serve something spiced and sparkling." Beverage suggestions: Autumn Gold Punch, Strawberry-Wine Punch, Gluhwen, Saturday-Night Cocktail Punch, Fruit Punch with Cointreau, Cranberry Cocktail, Cranberry Float, Festive Wine Punch, Caribbean Punch, Pik Rhubarb Punch, Quick Raspberry Punch, Spiced Grape Punch, Mai Bowle, Sherry Bowl Punch, Sherry Cobbler, Salty-Dog Cocktail, Frisky Sours, Cider-Rum Punch, California Nectar, Grape-Juice Nectar, Herbed Tomato Juice, Hot Mulled Cider, Spiced Cider, Mulled Pineapple Juice. [NOTE: Most of these are non-alcoholic. With the exception of Mai Bowle (Rhine wine) those with alcohol are indicated by beverage name].
---McCall's Cocktail-Time Cookbook, McCalls magazine [Advace Publishers:Orlando FL] 1965 (p. 46-50)
"On the first day, students [at the American Bartending School]...learn the gibson, dry martini, dry manhattan, manhattan, rob roy, daiquiri, bacardi, side car and champagne cocktail."
---"You Have to Pour it On to Pass the Bar Exams," Los Angeles Times, November 23, 1967 (p. 15)
"To lovers of romance...we offer a cocktail new to the USA. The Tequilla Sour...Our Gin Sour isn't only a new cocktail, it's a new idea--the two purpose cocktail. You make it a Tom Collins by adding club soda, sugar, and ice...For those who think the proof of a cocktail is in the proof, we present our 11 to 1 Vodka Martini."
---"Now there are three more cocktails you can't goof up," ...Calvert advertisement, Los Angeles Times, May 11, 1967 (p. 6)
"...the Daiquiri is America's second most popular cocktail."
...rums of Puerto Rico ad, Los Angeles Times, December 14, 1967 (p. H3)
, display ad with drink recipes, Los Angeles Times, March 16, 1969 (p. V72)
Also popular in 1969 were “cocktails in a can,” pre-fab beverages sold in 8 ounce cans with flip top lids. Popular choices were Daiquiri, Manhattan, Screwdriver, Margarita, Mai Tai, Whiskey Sour & Martini.
---display ad, Los Angeles Times, August 17, 1969 (p. M38)
Equipment & service
"Now and then we look into the work of our fellow cookbook authors and are usually surprised to discover how little attention they pay to liquor. In past editions we, too, have approached this subject rather apologetically--after all, there was a time when selling or serving alcoholic refreshment was considered disreputable in America. But here and now we drop all subterfuge, frankly concede that 'something to drink' is becoming with us an almost invariable concomitant of at least the company dinner, and have boldly enlarged this section of the book. Always in the back of our minds, spurring us on, is the memory of the cartoon which depicted a group of guests sitting around a living room, strickenly regarding their cocktail glasses, while the hostess, one of those inimitable Hokinson types, all enbonpoint, cheer, and fluttering organdy, announces, 'A very dear friend game me some wonderful old Scotch and I just happened to find a bottle of papaya juice in the refrigerator!' "Cocktails and Other Before-Dinner Drinks. The cocktail is probably an American invention, and most certainly a typically American kind of drink. Whatever mixtures you put together--and part of the fascination of cocktail making is the degree of inventiveness it seems to encourage--hold fast to a few general principles. The most important of these is to keep the quantity of the basic ingredients--gin, whisky, rum, etc.--up to about 60% of the total drink, never below half. Remember, as a corollary, that cocktails are before-meal drinks appetizers. For this reason they should be neither oversweet nor overloaded with cream and egg, in order to avoid spoiling the appetite instead of stimulating it. If you mix drinks in your kitchen, your equipment probably includes the essential strainer, squeezer, bottle opener, ice pick, and sharp knife. Basic bar equiment also includes a heavy glass cocktail shaker; a martini pitcher; and ice bucket and tongs; a bar spoon; a strainer; a jigger; a muddler; a bitters bottle with the dropper type top; and--for converting cubes to crushed ice--a heavy canvas bag and wood mallet. We also show a lemon peeler guaranteed to get only the colored unbitter part of the rind, and the only corkscrew that doesn't induce complete frustration. "A simple syrup is a useful ingredient when making drinks. Boil for 5 minutes 1 part water to 2 parts sugar, or half as much water as sugar. Keep the syrup in a bottle, refrigerated, and use it as needed. In addition to various liquors, it is advisable for the home bartender to have on hand a stock of: bitters, carbonated water, lemons, oranges, limes, olives, cherries. For Garnishes see page 40. See also the chapters on Canapes and Hors d'Oeuvre for suitable accompaniments for cocktails--besides a steady head...Mix only one round at a time. You stock as a bartender will never go up on the strength of your 'dividend' drinks."
---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker [Bobbs-Merrill:Indianapolis IN] 1962 (p. 28-29)
"A Cocktail Party for 30. Here is a party that embodies my approach to the cocktail hour. Instead of tray after tray of tiny morsels of food, we have a good, hearty offering. Serve the usual variety of drinks, but be sure to include some beer, champagne and chilled dry sherry. The steak tartare should be served in a bowl surrounded with a selection of breads and crackers; or molded into a loaf and served on a chopping board. Pass the spareribs with plates and small paper napkins. Along with this, serve either a bowl of freshly shelled peas or fresh, raw asparagus tips--whichever is is season. Steak Tartare, Glazed Spareribs, Raw Peas or Raw Asparagus Tips with Coarse Salt and Pepper, Freshly Roasted Salted Peanuts, Knockwurst with Shallot Mustard."...ibid (p. 238-239).
"A Large Cocktail Crush for 40. This is one of those parties which starts at abou 6 or 7 o'clock and goes on till about 8:30 or 9:00 and provides enough food so that people do not need to go to dinner. I'd set up a full bar and also have some champagne and white wine with cassis. Thus you are apt to satisfy everyone. Coffee is a good idea at about 9 o'clock, with some sweet biscuits, perhaps. Roast Beef with Mustards, raw Vegetables in Ice, Cheese Board, Nuts, Olives."---ibid (p. 240-241)
"A Simple Cocktail Party for 6 or 8. Offer an assortment of cocktails and drinks without attempting to produce everything in the bartender's handbook. You might confine yourself to martinis, daiquiries and Scotch, for example. The feature of the party will be the pate de campagne. Pate de Campagne, Provencale, Fresh Toast, Anchovied Radishes, Garlic-Flavored Olives."---ibid (p.245)
"A Small Elegant Cocktail Party for 10. This is the type of cocktail party you give for a very close friend who loves the elegant things in life or for a visiting mogul who is tremendously important to you or to the community. In other words, its a smash! Fill a large silver punch bowl with ice, and in it chill champagne, vodka, and zubrowka and perhaps aqavit. If guests demand other drinks, have the makings at hand, but the chilled selection in the punch bowl is appropriate for the food to be served. Brink out small plates, knives and forks, and your best linen. Caviar, Smoked Salmon, Foie Gras. "---ibid (p. 252)
"Hors d'oeuvres and canapes are appetizers served with drinks. The canape sits on its own little couch of crouton or pastry tidbit, while the hors d'oeuvere is independently and ready to meet up with whatever bread or cracker is presented separately. Many hors d'oeuvres are themselves rich in fat or are combined with an oil or butter base to buffer the impact of alcohol on the system. If, during preprandial drinking, the appetizer intake is too extensive, any true enjoyment of the meal itself is destroyed. The palate is too heavily coated, too overstimulated by spices and dulled by alcohol. A very hot, light soup is a help in clearing the palate for the more delicate and subtle flavors of the meal. The very name 'hors d'oeuvre,' literally interpreted, means 'outside the main works.' These hold themselves aloof as do the famed Russian Zakuska or the Italian antipasto, in spite of their separatist quality, may even replace the soup course if the portions offered are somewhat more generous in size or amount. Allow about 6 or 8 hors d'oeuvres per person. Serve imaginative combinations, but remember that, unlike in the overture to an opera, it is unwise to forecast in this course any of the joys that are to follow in the meal. Never skip hors d'oeuvres of canapes when you are serving drinks for they play a functional role, but there is not harm in keeping them simple--just olives, salted nuts and one or two interesting spreads or canapes, so the meal that is to follow can be truly relished. Should you serve--either in the living room or at the table--caviar in pickled beets or anchovy eggs on tomatoes, forget the very existence of beet and tomato when planning the flavors of the dinner. This is not a superfluous caution, for one encounters many unnecessarily repetitious meals. Choose for living-room service bite-size canapes or hors d'oeuvres, unless you are furnishing plates. If hors d'oeuvres are meat to be hot, serve them fresh from the oven. If they are the type that will hold, use some form of heated dish. Have cold offerings right out of the refrigerator or on platters set on cracked ice. Cheeses should be presentd at a temperature of around 70 degrees...Here are a a few types of food which are particularly appropriate for the hors d'oeuvre course: Caviar, pate and terrines, vegetables a la grecque, stuffed artichoke hearts, mushrooms, beets, brussel sprouts and cherry tomatoes. You may also use spreads and dips: deviled, pickled, truffled, or chopped eggs; skewered or bacon wrapped tidbits; smoked, sauced or mayonnaised seafood; quenelles, and timbales; choice sausages, both hot and cod; glazed or jellied foods; nuts, olives or cheeses... "About ways to serve...Food often looks more dramatic if some of it can be presented on several levels...Keep in mind what the platter will look like as it begins to be demolished. For this reason, it is often wiser to arrange several small plates which are easily replaced or replenished than one big one which may be difficult to resurrect to its pristine glory. First described are some mechanical aids to give platters a lift. Here are a few of the simplest: cut a grapefruit in half or carve a solid base on an orange or apple, place cut side down on a plate, stud with hors d'oeuvres, and surround with a garnish or canapes...You may also cut a melon or use a small, deep bowl or a footed bowl as a receptacle for hors d'oeuvres and surround it with canapes...Stud a pineapple...Just by the placement of food on the platter you can bring about height variations and attractive color relationships. On an oblong plate, center some dainty triangular sandwiches, peaks up like a long mountain range. Alternate sandwiches of a fine ham spread or thinly sliced ham with others made of caviar or mushroom spread or with thick buttered bread. Place small, well-drained marinated shrimp along the base of the range, on either side, and accent the water cress garnished edge of the platter with French endive or celery filled with Guacamole...Try to choose and edible garnish for hors d'oeuvres trays. You may want to try beautifully cut vegetables...If platters are not passed and you want a table accent, place hors d'oeuvres directly on crushed ice, on a layered tray..."
---Joy of Cooking,  (p. 60)
[NOTE: Recipes in this section include Nuts Toasted in the Shell, Curried Nuts, Toasted Seeds, Puffed Cereals, Seasoned Popcorn, Stuffed Fruit, Cold Skewered Tidbits, Filled Edam Cheese, Edam Nuggets, Vicksburg Cheese, Nut Cheese Balls, Gelatin Cheese Mold, Anchovy Cheese or Kleiner Liptauer, Nut Creams, Cheese Carrots, Cheese Balls Florentine, Fried Cheese Dreams, Fried Cheese Balls, Pastry Cheese Balls, Egg Apples, Artichoke, Garnished Asparagus Spears, Marinated Beans, Stuffed Beets Cockaigne, Stuffed Brussels Sprouts, Spiced Cabbage Mound, Marinated Carrots, Marinated Celeriac or Radishes, Stuffed Celery Ribs or Rings, Celery Curls, Cucumber Lily, Stuffed Leeks, Marinated Mushrooms, Garlic Olives, Marinated Onions, Peppers, Stuffed Pickles, Black Radishes, Stuffed Tomatoes, Ham and Cheese, Ham and Egg Balls, Prosciutto and Fruit, Meat Balls, Tongue Cornucopias, Bologna Triangles, Tiny Broiled Sausages, Rumaki, Sherried Chicken Bits, Serviche, Fish Balls, Caviar, Herring Rolls, Rollmops, Cold Oysters, Pickled Oysters, Aspic-Glazed Shrimp, Pickled Shrimp, Broiled Shrimp, Fried Shrimp Balls, Foods to be dipped (crackers, potato chips, small wheat biscuits, toast sticks, corn chips, fried oysters, cooked shrimp, iced cucumber strips, iced green pepper strips, cauliflower flowerets, carrot sticks, radishes, celery sticks, peeled broccoli stems) and Dips (sour cream, cheese, Oriental, Syrian, avocado, chilled spinach, seafood, anchovy, tomato cream, caviar, clam, crab meat and shrimp). (p. 61-73)
"As for food, there is only one guiding principle. Millions of toasties, tidbits, hot and cold hors d'oeuvres, cocktail snacks and canapes are sold commercially prepared. You simply ask yourself--are they decidedly salty, peppery or piquant? If they are, they spur the taste and thirst apparatus...For instance, salty anchovy fillets quicken the taste buts. A paste made of canned salmon..deadens the appetite. Genuine razorback Smithfield ham, cured with pepper, sets the juices flowing. Ordinary boiled ham keeps the juices passive. If you plan to serve canapes or hors d'oeuvres beforehand, either hot or cold, and you want them to be as showy as possible, you should buy them already prepared...Be sure to place the prepared canapes on a large platter or tray lined with a large lace-paper doily...remember to avoid such bland concoctions as peanut butter, tongue puree or cream cheese and pineapple spread. By all means use such items as Roquefort cheese spread, anchovy paste, smoked salmon paste, etc. Remember that such spreads should be ice-cold and should be served on the lightest and crispest crackers or cocktail wafers available...We do not wish to join the snobcracy who turn up their noses at such old-fashioned teasers as potato chips, peanuts and popcorn. Bit of you're throwing a party, why not put on a proud belly for your special occasion? Instead of peanuts, serve large, fresh salted almonds; instead of potato chips serve light, feathery shrimp chips; instead of ordinary popcorn taken from a bag, make your own warm fresh popcorn and douse it generously with fresh butter and swirls of salt."
---Playboy Gourmet: a food and drink handbook for the host at home, Thomas Mario [Playboy Press:Chicago IL] 1961 (p. 294-295)
"The food you serve should be finger-size if possible, as some of your guests will be standing, holding a glass in one hand and eating a bite here and there as they move about talking to other guests. Juggling doesn't come easily to most people. Circulate fresh supplies as long as part lasts--reguar or open-faced sandwiches, plates of relishes, potato chips, salted nuts, and a hot specialty like tiny sausage rolls. Each is best handled separately. Occasionally cocktail-party food is set out as for small buffet, with a stack of small plates or those who wish them.. Provide plenty of toothpicks or forks for spearing moist snacks. Cocktail food generally is most appealing when sharply flavored--salted nuts, olives, flavorful crackers, crisp 'munchies,' herring tidbits, smoked oysters, smoked salmon, pates, cheese spreads, dips, spreads, cocktail toast, seasoned toasts, nut wafers, cheese wafers, and stuffed eggs. Strips of toasted bread make good appetizer foundations...cut bread into assorted shapes...Or buy small dinner rolls, and slice thin... For the finishing touch on canapes, here are a few suggestions: anchovy paste asparagus tips and Parmesan cheese on toast strips; onion sandwiches; smoked salmon and capers on pumpernickel; caviar with mimosa garnish (sieved egg yolk) on toast; sardines, onions and mayonnaise on toast; shrimp butter and shrimp on toast; ground ham and Swiss cheese on rolls, heated; toast, blue-cheese spread and onion garnish; clam cocktail spread on toast triangles decorated with anchovy curls, grilled....Hors d'oeuvres Suggestions: steak tartare, stuffed mushrooms, turnovers (ham and anchovy, sausage, mushroom or empanadas), shrimp toast, chicken in paper, butterfly shrimp, baked sesame clams, keftethes (parsley meat balls), tirotrigona (cheese-filled triangles)."
---Ladies' Home Journal Adventures in Cooking, Ladies Home Journal editors [Prentice-Hall:Englewood Ciffs NJ] 1968 (p. 307-310)
"Cook your meal in foil. Here's a real adventure in eating. The whole meal or each person's meal is packaged, cooked and served in foil. The blend of flavors is absolutely delicious! Cook these supper 'kits' over the coals on an outdoor grill. Just arrange the foods in their wrappings (hours ahead, if you like) and stow in refrigerator till time to cook. Serve packages on paper plates (paper one for no cleanup) and let each hungry diner open his own. Or ou can open all and tuck a sprig of parsley in each for fresh color. An added plus: If guests are late, dinner will keep warm in foil, not dry out. To go with these easy meals, serve a simple salad or fresh relishes and pickles. Pas a basket of hard rolls (heated in foil). For dessert, how about fresh fruit? Mm-mmmm."
---Better Homes & Gardens Barbecue Book [Meredith Press:Des Moines IA] 1965 (p. 87)
[NOTE: Recipes in this chapter include: Campfire Pot Roast, Foiled Vegetables, Patio Fiesta Dinner, Cinnamon Apples, Chuck-wagon Special, Pork Chop Treat, Chicken-in-the-garden, Baked Shoestring Potatoes, Nani Luau (Beautiful Feast), Sukiyaki, Saucy Pot Roast, Dixie Dinner (ham & sweet potatoes), Ribs and Kraut, Bean Bag (franks & beans), Hobo Popcorn, Cheesed Potatoes in Foil, Brown-and-serve Rolls on a Spit, Broiled French Bread, Grilled Sweet Rolls, Olive Pizza Bread, Onion-cheese Loaf, Long Boy Loaf (garlic bread), Broiled Refrigerator Rolls, Friday Burgers (tuna), Hot Ham Buns & Hobologna Bunwiches. If you want recipes let !]
Coffee Rich, aluminum cans used for food and beverages, Granny Smith apples introduced to the USA, Domino's Pizza, single-serving ketchup packets, .
Total (breakfast cereal, General Mills), Mrs. Butterworth's Syrup (Unilever), Green Giant frozen peas, Sprite (Coca Cola Company), Coffee-Mate (Carnation), Sylvia's restaurant (NYC), Hardee's (fast food chain)
Frozen bread dough (Bridgford Foods Corp.), Pet-Ritz Frozen Pie Crusts, Diet-Rite Cola (Royal Crwon Cola), tab-opening aluminum cans for soft drinks, Taco Bell (fast food chain)
Yakisoba (Nissin Foods), Tab (Cocoa Cola Company), Wundra (flour, General Mills), Cremora (Borden)
(Kellogg's), (Carnation Co.), (Anchor Bar, Buffalo NY), Coca cola in cans, Ruffles potato chips, Lucky Charms (breakfast cereal,General Mills), Bugles, Whistles & Daisys (snack foods, General Mills), Chiffon Margarine and Seven Seas Salad Dressing (Anderson, Clayton & Co, now Kraft), Yoplait Yogurt, Awake (synthetic orange juice, General Foods), Maxim (freeze-dried instant coffee, General Foods),
Shake 'n Bake (General Foods), Cool Whip (General Foods), (General Foods), Rock Cornish game hens (Tyson), Apple Jacks (breakfast cereal, Kelloggs), SpaghettiOs (Franco-American/Campbell Soup Co.), Cranapple Fruit Juice (Ocean Spray), Gatorade, Diet Pepsi
BacOs (General Mills), Product 19 (breakfast cereal, Kellogg), 0,000 Bar (Nestle), Caravelle (candy bar, Peter Paul), Taster's Choice (freeze dried coffee, Nestle), Doritos (Frito Lay), instant oatmeal (Quaker), Easy Cheese (Nabisco)
Taco Seasoning Mix (Lawry's)
Red Lobster (chain restaurant), Legal Seafoods (chain restaurant)
Chunky Soups (Campbell's), Kaboom (breakfast cereal, General Mills), Frosted Mini-Wheats (breakfast cereal, Kellogg), Chipos (snack food, General Mills), Pringles (potato snacks, Proctor & Gamble), Wendy's (chain restaurant), Long John Silver's Fish 'n Chips (chain restaurant).
SOURCES: The Food Chronology, James L. Trager, The Century in Food, Beverly Bundy
Better Homes & Gardens, September 1968:
Slender from Carnation (liquid diet powder; mix with milk "only 225 calories"), Morton Salt (product package pix 1914, 1921, 1933, 1941, 1956 & current), Kraft Barbecue Sauce (glass bottle), Betty Crocker Cake Mix (box, Yellow & Chocolate Frosting Mix), Campbell's Soup (Golden Mushroom & Tomato, recipe for Chicken Marengo), Contadina Tomato Paste (recipe for Manicotti-Cheese Bake), Wonder Bread "Helps build strong bones 12 ways"), Betty Crocker Ready-to-Spread Frosting, Dark Dutch Fudge "new"), Kraft Natural Swiss Cheese (sliced), Swift's Premium Sweet Smoked Taste bacon (sliced), Kraft Spaghetti Sauce (box), 'N' Cheese), Italian Dressing (bottle), Grated Parmesan Cheese, Tabasco Sauce (small glass bottle; recipe for 'Meat 'N' Peas Taters 'N' Cheese), Nabisco crackers (Sociables, Wheat Thins, Chicken in a Biskit, Triscuit, Bacon Flavored Thins, Ritz) paired with Snack Mate combustion canned cheese (American, Cheddar & Pizza), Planters Nuts (glass jars: mixed nuts, cashews, pecans & peanuts), Hormel's SPAM Italiano, "Accordian pleated with Mozzarella cheese."), Pillsbury Coffee Cake Mixes (Apple Cinnamon, Butter Pecan, Pecan Bars; recipes for Spicy Apples, Pecan Tortoise Treats & Peach Glory Coffee Cake), Lipton Onion Soup Mix (box, recipe for Lipton Fondue American), Knox Unflavored Gelatine (recipe for Chocolate Souffle), Kraft Noodle & Chicken Dinner (box), Kraft Macaroni & Cheese (box), Kraft Spaghetti Dinner (box), Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce (recipe for Mock Steak), Hellmann's Real Mayonnaise (recipes for Shrimp Salad Filling, Avocado Filling, Chef Salad Filling & Egg-Bacon Filling), Pillsbury Ready-to-Spread chocolate frosting, Mister Mustard (glass jar), Raisins (California Raisin Board, no specific brand or recipe), Benson's Fruit Cake (promoted for fund raising).
Sylvia Lovgren's Fashionable Food: Seven Decades of Food Fads [MacMillan:New York] 1995 places these recipes in her 1970s chapter:
zucchini bread, pumpkin bread, crepes, quiche Lorraine, cioppino, spaghetti carbonara, fettucine alfredo, pasta primavera, moussaka, spinach salad with cheddar cheese dressing, glazed strawberry pie, granola fondue, carrot cake, strawberry-banana smoothee, broccoli casserole, wacky cake, apple cake, impossible pie, lemon bars, strawberry squares and tomato coulis. Note: These recipes were NOT invented in the 1970s. They represent popular choices based on their presence in period magazines, cookbooks, and menus.
Signature dishes of the 1970s (general notes & selected recipes):
Most home cooks did not have this luxury of choice. Economic challenges of the 1970s went beyond the even/odd days at gas pumps. They also visited butcher counters in local supermarkets. Horseburgers, anyone?
Period cookbooks are imperfect barometers of actual plates served to real people. At best, they accurately report the collective vision of what average, middle class-people "should be" eating. For that reason they are worth examining. If you interview anybody who ate their way through the 1970s you are likely to find their meal recollections were pretty different from the following recommendations. People eat what's in the house. If the primary cook has time to cook traditional time-consuming recipes then so dines the rest of these house. Note: most folks through the ages valued food economy & prep time.
Breakfast: Orange Juice, Kuglehopf, Browned Sausage Links, Coffee, Milk.
Lunch: Creole Fish Soup, Savory Oven Vegetables, Ginger Pears, Coffee, Tea, Milk.
Supper: Peanut-Butter Sandwiches on Whole-Wheat Bread, Sliced Tomatoes, Ginger Jumbos, Coffee, Tea, Milk.
Breakfast: Applesauce, Poached Eggs, Buttered Raisin-Treat Toast, Coffee, Milk.
Lunch: Country Buttermilk Soup, Tuna Hoboes, Frozen Strawberry Mallow, Coffee, Tea, Milk.
Supper: Pineapple-Grapefruit Juice, Italian Rice Balls, Zucchini Rounds, Anchovies and Pimientos of Lettuce Leaves, Melon Wedges, Coffee, Tea, Milk.
Breakfast: Grapefruit Halves, Crumb Cake, Soft-Cooked Eggs, Coffee, Milk.
Lunch:Tomato Soup, Spicy Relish-Stuffed Eggs, Fruit Cocktail, Crumb Cake, Coffee, Tea, Milk.
Supper: Ziti Casserole, Hearts of Lettuce with Blue-Cheese Dressing, Watermelon Ice, Coffee, Tea, Milk."
---Family Circle Cookbook, Food Editors of Family Circle and Jean Anderson [Family Circle:New York] 1974 (p. 72-72)
funky & fun...we have that too!
Hearty, Winter, knives & forks: Chicken Sticks, Moulded Guacamole, Peppy Almonds, Neapolitan Veal, Lisa's Noodles, Celery Heart Salad, Ginger Coffee Treat
Informal, Winter, forks only: Hot Frijole Chip Dip, Zippy Avocado, Sour-Cream Noodle Bake, Fisherman's Find, Barbecued French Loaf, Wellesley Coffee Cake
Casual & Hearty, Winter, forks only: South-of-the-Border Dip, Chutney Olive Dip, Beef 'n'Beer, Chesapeake Crab, Ansalada de Arroz, Cheddar Corn Bread, Toffee Ice Cream Roll
Stand up, Winter, forks only: Chesapeake Clams and Cheese, Sunshine Sausage Rolls, Toasted Almond Dip, Veal Flamenco, Swedish Chicken Salad, Wilted Cucumber Slices, Herb Ring-a-Round, Fyrste Kake, Sweet Potato Pecan Cake
Oriental, Winter, knives & forks: Ham and Pineapple Savories, Pickled Mushrooms, Sassy Pecans, Beef with Oyster sauce, Chicken Lo Mein, Exotic Shrimp Salad, Celery with Waterchestnuts, Baked Fruit Desert, Almond Tea Cakes
Sunday night, Winter, informal, knives & forks: Onion Cheese Wafers, Down East Sardine Mold, Cassoulet, Lemon Pepper Tomatoes, Tangy Cucumber Ring, Smoky Bread, Paragon Queen's Heart
Elegant, Spring, forks only: Vienna Pinwheels, Shrimp Pate, Cannelloni, Artichoke Bottoms Filled with Peas, Pineapple Daiquiry Mold, Coffee Almond Cream Pie
Stand up, Spring, forks only: Oriental Shrimp, Wurst-stuffed Mushrooms, Basic Black and Gold, South Sea Beef, Chicken Livers Gourmet, Betsy's Spinach, Tomato Ring, Marble Brownies, Miniature Cheesecakes, Danish Sugar Cookies
Sit-down, Spring, knives & forks: Mushrooms Stuffed with Anchovies, Black Olive Dip, Pier 4 Cheese Spread, Veal Marengo, Paella Salad, Zucchini au Gratin, Filbert Torte, Almond Tart
Fairly Elegant, Spring, knives & forks: Spinach Cheese Rolls, Ceci Remoulade, Cheese 'n' Chutney, Tomato Glazed Beef, Scallop Casserole, Artichoke Hearts and Peas, Sparkling Salad Mold, Frozen Macaroon Souffle
Informal, Spring, forks only: Chef's Favorite, Green Goddess Dip, Chili Cheese Jubilee, Seafood Santa Barbara, Piquant Asparagus, Poppy Sesame Petal Loaf, Super Bundt Cake
Elegant, Summer, knives & forks: Shad Roe en Brochette, Brandied Cheese Roll, Rosemary Chicken, Tangerine Rice, Cucumber Mousse, Cheese-filled Strudel
Stand-up Buffet, Summer, forks only: Zesty Parmesan Cubes, Danish Cheeese Liver Pate, Pearl of the Sea Mousse, Meatball Piemonte, Chutney Chicken Salad, California Vegetable Bowl, Italian Crescents, Easy Schecken, Chocolate Mint Sticks, Frosted Walnut Bars
Elegant, Fall, knives & forks: Shrimp in Jackets, Elysian Cheese Mold, Pickled Cocktail Beets, Green Noodles Chicken, Vitello Tonnato, Avocado and Hearts of Palm Salad, Apricot Mousse
Simple, Fall, Stand-up, forks only: Eggplant Puffs, New England Lobster Mold, Pasta Florentine, Spiked Bean Salad, Garlic Cheese Bread, Bernice's Most Heavenly Hash
Elegant, Fall, knives & forks: Ham Nuggets, Dutch Cheese Appetizer, Smoky Egg Dip, Herbed Veal, Chicken Tahitian, Tomato Aspic in Cheese Crust, Savory Butterflake Loaf, Mocha Icebox Cake
Sit-down, Fall, knives & forks: Hot Shrimp Toast, Riviera Roquefort Log, Coldon Manor Moussaka, Rolled Chicken Breasts, Nutty Rice with Mushrooms, Green Bean Salad, Tia Maria Cold SouffleInformal, Fall, knives & forks: Deviled Sardines, Crocked Cheese, Sweet and Sour Beef, Broccoli San Vincente, Beer Barrel Potatoes, Orange Spongecake
Cocktails only: Curried Crab Tarts, Ham Tarts, Puffed Cheesies, Aloha Spread, Shrimp and Artichoke Vinaigrette, Fansiful Crabmeat Rolls, Ruby Red Franks, Cheese Pinwheels, Hammed-up Mushrooms, Tivoli Clam Dip, Snappy Cheese Apple, Antipasto Crostini, Meat-filled Triangles, Sour-Cream Onion Pie, Gourmet Butterfly Shrimp, Chili con Queso, Nantucket Pancakes, Finger Lickin' Spareribs, Nova Scotia Mousse, Pacific Avocado Dip, Eggplant Caviar, Brandied Country Pate. ALCOHOLIC COCKTAILS: Martini, Whiskey Sour, Daiquiri, Bloody Mary, Marguerita, Champagne Punch."
---Come for Cocktails, Stay for Supper, Marian Burros and Lois Levine [Collier MacMillan:New York] 1970 (p. xv-xxvii)
Swiss Swirl Fondue (classic cheese).]
Broiled pineapple appetizers, guacamole, meatball dip, mini kabobs, pineapple cheeseball, pineapple yaki tori, piroshki, spiced prunes, stuffed celery, tuna tempters
Golden glow punch, hot pineapple mulled tea, peach daiquiri, pineapple fizz, tomato-onion refresher, rainbow punch
Soups & sauces
Beef barley, chicken corn chowder, cream of asparagus, Italian minestrone, meatball soup, potato corn chowder, Russian borsch, Swedish fruit soup, tomato mushroom soup, BBQ Sauce Del Monte, Creole sauce, spicy ham glaze, sweet-sour sauce, tartar relish
Salads & dressings
Asparagus vinaigrette, California chicken salad, celestial pineapple salad, cranberry pineapple mold, prune ambrosia salad, raisin slaw, spinach salad, three bean salad, tuna curry salad, tuna toastadas with guacamole, Waldorf salad, French dressing, creamy Russian, poppy seed, sour cream, soy, Thousand Island and vinaigrette
Eggs & cheese
Basic cheese souffle, corn souffle, maracroni & cheese, quiche Lorraine, Spanish omelet, tuna cheese omelet, tuna quiche
Meats, poultry & fish
Apple kraut pork bake, beef goulash, celebration ham loaf, chili dogs, Creole pork chops, crown roast of pork, eggplant casserole, enchilada casserole, hamburger-corn pie, islander spareribs, meatloaf Wellington, Polynesian broil, Swiss steak stew, tropical bean bake, veal parmigiana, cherry chicken supreme, chicken cacciatore, Hawaiian chicken, peachy oven fried chicken, sesame chicken, lemony salmon crepes, salmon loaf, shrimp Creole, sweet sour shrimp, Tuna chow mein
Bean curry, beets a la orange, Creole style green beans, green beans au gratin, peas with mushrooms and onions, pineapple squash, pioneer succotash, sweet potato islands, zucchini rissoto, zucchini tortilla casserole
Acapulco burgers, bagel sandwich, broiled tuna burgers, cheesey pinewiches, French toasted sandwich, pineapple Monte Cristo, Quesadas, triple decker treat, tuna-cado sandwiches, tuna cheesewiches
Celestial peaches, cherries jubilee, pears Helene, pineapple ambrosia, pumpkin parfait, applesauce cake, pineapple upside-down cake, lemon sunshine cake, tomato spice cake-cream cheese frosting, saucy chocolate cake-lemon cream frosting, cheesecake pear pie, pine-lime pie, prune bavarian pie, pumpkin pie, gremlin bars, harlequin bars, peach chews, pineapple oatmeal cookies.
---Del Monte Kitchens Cookbook, Del Monte Kitchens [San Francisco:1972]
[NOTE: Throughout American food history, companies promoted their products through cookbooks and brochures. The pitch was convenience. The purpose was sales. That's what makes these items excellent sources for discovering popular period foods. Of course, this particular source is full of pineapple!]
An Italian Dinner
Melon with Port, Veal Scallopini, Noodles with Pesto Sauce, Sauteed Zucchini and Green Peppers, Bread Sticks, Butter, Biscuit Tortoni or Spumoni, Chilled White Wine, Coffee.
Festive Friday Dinner
Gazpacho, Fillets of Sole Florentine, Crisp Potato Sticks, Bibb Lettuce with Oil and Vinegar Dressing, Toasted Herb Rolls, Warm Apricot Souffle with Whipped Cream or Old-Fashioned Strawberry Shortcake, Chilled White Wine, Coffee.
Cocktails, Salted Nuts, Royal Consomme Madrilene, Toasted Crackers, Rack of Lamb Provencal, Browned New Potatoes, Stuffed Mushrooms, Red Bordeaux or Burgundy, Green Salad Bowl, Rolls, Butter, Chocolate-Nut Torte or Creme de Menth Sherbet, Demitasse, Liqueurs.
Patio Spring Dinner
Chilled Tomato Consomme, Roast Leg of Veal in White Wine, Casserole of Potaotes au Gratin, Fresh Spinach Mimosa, Sauteed Mushrooms, Basket of Hot Rolls, Butter, Honolulu Coconut Pie, Chilled White Wine, Coffee.
The Cocktail Party
Daiquiri Punch Bowl and other drinks, cheese Pate Pineapple, Assorted Crackers, Guacamole Dip with Crisp Vegetables, Cocktail Shrimp, Chafing Dish of Swedish Meatballs, Savory Steak Slices, Basket of Party Rye Bread, Salted Nuts, Coffee.
Hearty Sunday Breakfast
Fresh-Orange Spritzer or Honeydew with Lime Slices and Mint Sprigs, Buttermilk Pancakes with Strawberries and Soru Cream, Maple Syrup, Baked Ham, Sausage, and Bacon, Warm Danish Pastry, Coffee.
Tea for the Committee
Pineapple-Apricot-Nut Loaf or Lemon Tea Bread with Sweet Butter, Toasted English Muffins, Strawberry Jam, Almond Tile Cookies, Petits Fours, Hot Tea.
---The New McCall's Cook Book, Mary Eckley, Food Editor of McCall's [Random House:New York] 1973 (p. 572-6)
Clam Juice on the rocks, Asparagus Pinwheel Pie, Stuffed Tomatoes, Corn Muffins, Coffee or Tea; Pineapple-Orange Shrub, Crab Imperial Chesapeake, Chicken Livers, Strogonoff, Fluffy Boiled Rice, Cherry Tomatoes, Coffee or Tea.
Sherried Mushroom Bouillon, Filets de Sole a la Catalane, Fluffy Boiled Rice, Buttered Baby Green Peas, Frozen Venetian Parfait, Coffee, Tea; Creany Watercress and Leek Soup, Souffled Broccoli Roulade, Sweill-Cheese Sauce, Peeled Cherry Tomatoes, Oil and Vinegar Dressing, Georgia Peach Shortcake, Coffee, Tea.
Dinners That Glamorize Beef Leftovers
Vegetable-Juice Cocktail, Chuck-Wagon Beef Casserole, Summer's Best Green Salad, Hot Biscuits, Fresh Fruit Salad on Angel Cake, Coffee, Tea, Milk; Mirabeau Beef Pie, Tomatoes Lutece, Rice Imperatrice with Cherry Sauce, Coffee, Tea, Milk.
Dinners that Glamorize Chicken Leftovers
Celery-Clam Borth, Chicken a la King, Fluffy Boiled Rice, Grapefruit and Avocado Crescents on Lettuce, French Dressing, Coffee Ice Cream, French Chocolate Fudge Sauce, Coffee, Tea, Milk; Apricot Nectar on Crushed Ice, Chicken Croquettes, Silky Veloute Sauce, Buttered Broccoli, Hot Rolls, Yankee Fruit Cobbler, Coffee, Tea, Milk.
Clam-Cream Dip, Assorted Crackers, Cassoulet, Marinated Squash Rings, Garlic Bread Chunks, Pears Aosta, Coffee, Tea; Spanish Dip, Carrot and Celery Sticks, Party Meat Loaf, Lima Salad Cups, Rainbow ice Cream Cake, Coffee, Tea.
Glazed Liver Pate, Scandinavian Appetizer Tray, Salmon Mousse in Aspic, Fish Balls with Parsley Sauce, Turkey Galantine, Sweet-Sour Brown Beans, Dilled Potato-Salad Platter, Caraway Cabbage Toss, Breads and Crackers, Dessert Cheese Tray, Lingonberry Torte, Swedish Apple Cake.
Appetizer Vegetables, Molded-Cheese Pineapple, Herbed Roast Beef, Chutney Fruit Sauce, Mustard Cream, Parker House Midgets, Seafood Salad Souffle, Tiny Tim Pecan Tarts, Coffee, Tea; Dilled Relish Tray, Crisp Crackers, Buffet Glazed Ham, Sweet-Sour Mustard Cream, Button Biscuits, Meatball Miniatures, Cherry Tomatoes, Candlelight Cake, Holiday Punch.
Menus for the Charcoal Chef
Cypress Fling, Guacamole, Corn Chips, Napoli Chicken Broil, Baked-Potato Bundles, Continental Green Salad, Quick Cool Lemon Souffle, Coffee, Tea, Milk; Lime Cooler, All-American Beef-Roll Roast, Chili-Bean Salad, Fresh Corn on the Cob, Hot Garlic Bread, Chocolate Ice Cream Supreme, Praline-Applesauce Cake, Coffee, Tea, Milk.
---The Family Circle Cookbook, Food editor of Family Circle and Jean Anderson [Family Circle:New York] 1974 (p. 84-88)
"Two Informal Summer Buffets
1. Chicken or Turkey loaf, Tomatoes Sutuffed with Easty Tuna Salad, Jiffy Deviled Eggs, Jellied Garden Vegetable Salad, Herbed Potato Salad, Danish Meat Balls, Buttered Noodles, Fresh Peach Crisp, Coffee
2. Glazed and Decorated Cold Ham, Macaroni and Shellfish Salad, Bean and Beet Salad, Tomato Aspic, Parker House Rolls, Ambrosia, Florentines, Coffee."
--- (p. 77-8)
"Two Formal Summer Buffets
1. Smoked Salmon, Pate-Filled Ham in Aspic, Chaud-Froid of Chicken Breasts, Avocado Mousse, Shellfish and Saffron Rice Salad, Lemon Fluff, Gingered Honeydew Melon, Coffee. 2. Fresh Fruit Cocktail, Whole Salmon in Aspic, Country Captain, Boiled Rice, Wilted Cucumbers, Russian, Strawberries Romanoff, Meringues Chantilly"
--- (p. 78)
"Four Back-Yard Barbeques
1. Guacamole, Taramasalata, Corn Chips, Creackers, Charcoal-Broiled Hamburgers, Charcoal-Broiled Frankfurters, Buns, Relishes, Chili Sauce, Mustard, Sliced Bermuda Onions, Three Bean Salad, German Macaraoni Salad, Assorted Ice Creams, Sweet Lemon Loaf, Soft Drinks, Beer, Coffee.
2. Andalusian Gazpacho, Charcoal-Broiled Sirloin Steak Stuffed with Mushrooms, Charcoal-Baked Potatoes, Sour Cream-Almond Sauce, Corn on the Cob, Grapefruit and Avocado Salad, Biscuit Tortoni, Sangria, Coffee.
3. Oysters or Clams on the Half Shell, Charcoal Spit-Roasted Loin of Pork, South American Hot Barbecue Sauce, Charcoal-Baked Butternut Squash, Beans Lyonnaise, Caribbean Compote, Pecan Crisps, Coffee.
4. Antipasto, Charcoal-Broiled Portuguese-Style Chicken or Turkey, Scalloped Potatoes, Ratatouille, Basket of Fresh Fruit, Crackers, Assorted Cheese, Coffee."
"Four Formal Dinners
1. Clam Juice on the Rocks, Duckling a l'Orange, Wild Rice, Buttered Green Beans, Poached Meringue Ring with Algarve Apricot Sauce, Demitasse
2. Coquilles St. Jacques a la Parisienne, Tournedos of Beef, Bearnaise Sauce, Bulgur-Mushroom Kasha, Minted Green Peas, Green Grapes and Sour Cream, Demitasse
3. Cucumber Veloute, Crown Roast of Lamb or Pork, Carrots Vichy, Danish-style New Potatoes, Cherries Jubilee, Coffee
4. Melon on Ham, Paupiettes of Sole with Rosy Sauce, Snow Peas and Scallions, Mushroom Risotto, Classic Pots de Creme au Chocolat, Coffee
"A Summer Cocktail Party
Pretty Party Pate, Melba rounds, Cold Marinated Shrim, Crisp Cucumber Rounds Tokyo Style, Garlicky Cocktail Almonds, Beer Cheese Spread, Caponata, Crackers.
"A Winter Cocktail Party
Chuntney-nut Meat Balls, Rumakis, Quince Tartlets, Spiced Olives, Garlic Nibbles, Taramasalata, Sesame Seed Crackers."
--- (p. 77)
"Teenagers today are about three times as worldly as their parents were at the same age. Many have traveled, if not abroad, at least to big cities where there are ethnic restaurants. They have sampled Smorgasbord, whole repertoires of pasta and Chinese classics, Shish Kebabs, Beef Stroganoff, chili (not the canned but the fiery Texas Type), Tacos, and very possibly Paella, Moussaka, Bouillabaisse, Borsch, Tempura, Sukiyaki, and Teriyaki. Let you own teen-ager help plan the menu. He or she knows what's in and out.
A Teen Birthday Supper
Cold Marinated Shrimp, Guacamole, Crackers, Corn Chips, Ripe and Green Olives, Pizza with a Choice of Toppings, Marinated Roasted Peppers, Tossed Green Salad, Choice of Dressings, Biscuit Tortoni, Lemon Chiffon Cake with Lemon Butter Cream Frosting, Milk, Soft Drinks." ---(p. 80)
SOURCE: The Doubleday Cookbook: Complete Contemporary Cooking, Jean Anderson and Elaine Hanna [Doubleday & Company:Garden City, NY] 1975
Grapefruit juice, sausage, bacon, cheese scrambled eggs, herbed tomatoes, cinnamon crescents, hot fruit compote, coffee.
Nutty pups (grilled hot dogs served with chunky peanut butter), pineapple-carrot toss, potato chips, pickle relish, popcorn pops, milk
Club Women's Lunch
Club chicken casserole, tomato slices, carrot sticks, cran-raspberry ring, fudge ribbon pie
Dinner for Four
Green pepper strips, cauliflowerets, carrot sticks, vegetable dip, beef fondue, creamy onion dip, cocktail sauce, butter-browned mushrooms, mustard sauce, tossed green salad, oil and vinegar dressing, French bread, butter, pineapple sherbet, wafers, coffee
Saint and Sinner Dinner
Cheese board, assorted crackers, broiled beef steak, boiled lobster, buttered asparagus, grapefruit-avocado salad, brioche, butter, cherries jubilee, coffee
Swedish meatballs, noodle ring, pease with mushrooms, spiced peach halves, carrot and celery sticks, olives, buttered rolls, chocolate cake, coffee, milk
Late Evening Buffet
Guacamole, olive cheese balls, corn chips, assorted crackers, ham and rye rounds, coconut macaroons, raspberry foldovers, cafe au lait
Barbecued short ribs, roasted corn, grilled garlic slices, Italian salad bowl, cantaloupe and ice cream, beverage
Classic cheese fondue, French brad, apple wedges, spiced tea.
---Better Homes and Gardens New Cook Book [Meredith:Des Moines] 1976 (p. 380-3)
Watergate salad & Watergate cake. Two tongue-in-cheek cookbooks were published to "commemorate" this event in 1973: The Watergate Cookbooks (Or, Who's in the Soup?), The Committee to Write the Cookbook and The Watergate Cookbook, N.Y. Alplaus. These may have been inspired by The Washington Post writer Tom Donnelly, who published an article titled "Serve Hot, Then Count the Silver." The recipes in these books are classic 1970s, the names cleverly allude to the players and their rolls. Sample dishes from the Committe to Write the Cookbook:
Nixon's Perfectly Clear Consomme
Ellberg's Leek Soup
Liddy's Clam-Up Chowder
Magurder's Dandy Ly'in Salad
Sauteed Slippery Eeels a la Deanoise
Republican Peeking Duck
Mitchell's Cooked Goose with Stuffing
Cox's In-Peach Chicken
Martha's Sweet and Sour Tongue
Hunt's Stewed Tomatoes
Nixxon's Hot Crossed Wired Buns with Tapping
GOP Cookie Crumbles
Madame Jean Dixon's Propheteroles
Pick Your Own Hero Sandwich
Inouye's Hawaiian Punch
Your librarian can help you obtain copies of these books. If you just want a sample recipe or two, we can provide. 1990s sidebar: was also the target of a similar culinary collection.
"The public taste is swinging away from the ultra-dry, palate-numbing drinks to cocktails with more emphatic flavors. Favorite drinks still may vary with the region. But a House Beautiful survey of bars in well-known clubs and restaurants around the country indicates that more-tasty cocktails are being ordered everywhere. These professional barmen credit the new drink preferences to the influence of women, who often don't like astringent cocktails, and of young people, who create their own drinks in a freehand style that ignores the time-honored rituals of mixology. There has been much talk of late that young people of today do not drink as much as their counterparts of a few years ago. But several industry surveys have reported that the younger generation's consumption now is at about the same level as that of those who came before. Today's young drinkers are, however, drinking more types of cocktails with a greater variety of spirits mixed into them. Typical of the new drink innovators are California's young surfers. They pioneered the kooky Harvey Wallbanger, a current favorite. Named for a fictitious folk hero of Paul Bunyan's stripe, Harvey packs an alcoholic A-bomb behind its beguiling taste. It combines three to six ounces of orange juice and one ounce of vodka with 1/2 ounce of Galliano floated on the top. Another youth-invented potion is a mixture of brandy and Kahlua...For experimentation, a number of brandies and liquors come in miniature (one- to 1 1/2-oz.) bottles. At 50 cents to .50 each, they allow tryouts for the new drinks without having to stock a large inventory. Miniatures, however, are not for sale in all 50 states. New premixed cocktails recently launched by two industry giants (National Distillers and Seagram) allow a host or hostess to serve some of the most exotic and hard-to-make drinks in town without messy bartending. Pop the top of an eight-ounce aluminum can (two drinks), and out pour the subtle flavorings of Mai Tai, for example, a mix of white rum, Orgeat (brandy, almonds and orange water), Curacao and fresh lime juice. Also featured among these convenience cans (a special boon to women, who like the seductive cocktails and who do most of the home liquor-buying) are dinks with ingredients the home bar is not apt to have and can't stock from local liquor stores and fruit stands. Pina Colada, Apricot Sour, Margarita, classic and fruit-flavored Daiquiris are just the beginning of more exotic drinks to come. The time-honored, safe way to sample a new dink is to try out a professional version at a bar before stocking the sometimes exotic ingredients a recipe may call for."
---"New Ways to Greet the Cocktail Hour," Epsie Kinard, House Beautiful, October 1970 (p. 140-141)
[NOTE: cocktail recipes offered from famous hotels/restaurants include: White Mink, Angel's Tip, Spinner, Orange of Scotland, Cold Buttered Rum, Yellow Champagne, Blonde Baby, Super Negorni, Blue Grass and Bloody Viper.]
Singature drinks: &
Hors d'oeuvres & small bites
"Having people in for drinks calls for a menu different from one for brunch or dinner. You may ask one or two friends to stop by after work, or give a real cocktail party for twenty or more people. In either case, you need nibble food to accompany the wine or liquor. Two rules: one, it should be possible to eat the nibbles with your fingers whether you're standing up or served on the arm of a chair, without any great danger to messy spills on clothes, rugs, or furniture. Two, such food shouldn't need hours of preparations. Too-elaborate canapes may look bery pretty, but they are a lot of work, and a small kitchen is not the ideal place to make them. Also, most canape leftovers are absolutely useless; you just have to throw them away...Here are some ideas and recipes for cocktail party food, grouped into four menus with different national accents, all meeting the two preceding requirements. For fewer guests, select just two or three items from one of the menus, or one from each if you prefer. Keep some of the staples on hand, especially if you adore giving impromptu invitations. We suggest: corn chips, melba toast rounds, miniature sesame crakers, pastry shells, cocktail crackers shaped to hold a filling. Also keep handy a can or two of black and green olives, smoked oysters or clams, tiny imported shrimps, pate de foie, black or red caviar, anchovy curls or fillets, at least two kinds of cheese, a chunk of hard salami... Transcontinental canape party: California Cheese-nut roll, Curried egg spread, Parfait de foie, Guacamole, New Orleans deviled crab, Smoked oysters. Middle East Meze: (cold) Stuffed grape leaves, Olives, black and green, White feta cheese, Tarama salata, Hummus, (hot) Fried mussels, Cheese borek, Potato cheese puffs. Danish Smorrebrod (miniature open-faced sandwiches): Cold rare roast beef and red onion slice, tiny shrimp and cucumber, Herring in cream sauce with pimento slice, Smoked salmon and cold scrambled egg, Liver pate with pickled mushroom and anchovy filet, Smoked cheese wtih tomato slice and gherkin. English Pub Party: Scotch eggs, potted shrimps, Wine merchants' cheese, Kipper snacks, Cheese straws, Angels on horseback."
---Cosmo Cookery: Gourmet Meals from First Drink to Last Kiss [Cosmopolitan Books:New York] 1971 (p. 223-236)
From "Cocktail Buffet," Gourmet, January 1970 (p. 30-37) recipes for: Salted Almonds, Caviar Pastries, Iced Pickled Shrimps, Curried Stuffed Eggs, Anchovy Eggs, Cheese Sticks, Celery Curls, Mushroom Toasts, Smoked Turkey Toasts, Walnut Cheese Bowl, Walnut Wheat Bread, Hot Veal Balls, Salami Cornucopias, Smoked Salmon Canapes, Potato Chips, Cucumber Sandwiches & Salted Cherry Tomatoes.
From "The Cocktail Hour," Gourmet, November 1970 (p. 33, 35): "Delectable finger foods, served hot or cold, are one of the most popular varieties of cocktail morsels. The recipes that follow run the gamut from delightfully stuffed crudites to flavorfully filled pastry crescents. And the drinks that toast these find hors d'oeuvre are thoughtfully selected from among the cocktail classics, with some interesting variations." Recipes offered: Westphalian Ham Rolls, Spinach Dipping Sauce, Marinated Mushroom Sandwiches, Radish Pinwheel Sandwiches, Filled Gougere Crescents, Ham Filling, Mushroom Caps with Roquefort Stuffing, Celery with Anchovy Stuffing. Cocktails: Dry Martini Cocktail, Negroni Cocktail, Old Fashioned, Danish Mary, Bullshot, Scotch Toddy & Daiquiri.
1972: Celestial Seasonings Herbal Teas, Snapple, Quaker Oats granola
1973: Egg McMuffins, Cup O'Noodles, Moosewood Collective (Ithaca NY), Stove Top Stuffing, Promise (margarine), Brim (caffeine-free instant coffee)
1974: Yoplait yogurt, Miller Lite, Mrs. Field's Cookies, Mr. Coffee
1975: Famous Amos Chocolate Chip Cookies, Country Time lemonade, Apple & Eve juice, Nature's Seasons (spice mix, Morton), Roller Coasters (canned pasta, Chef Boy-ar-dee), Yogurt English Muffins (), Salad Crunchies (NSB Foods), Peanut Butter Crunchola (Sunfield Foods), Frozen Swiss Fondue & Stuffed Pasta Shells (Stouffers), Instant European Style Coffees: Cafe Viennese, Cafe Capri and Cafe Mocha (Hills Brothers)
1976: , Burger King launches its "Have it Your Way", Starburst Fruit Chews, Oodles of Noodles, Puritan Oil, Perrier Water introduced to U.S. markets
1977: Dean & DeLuca, Twix Cookie Bars, Denny's Grand Slam Breakfast, recyclable soda bottles, plastic grocery bags
1978: McCormick's Lite Gravy, Ben & Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream, Reggie Bar (candy), Reese's Pieces, Whatchamacallit (candy), Arby's Beef'n'Cheddar Sandwich
1979: Paul Proudhomme opens K-Paul Louisiana Kitchens igniting Cajun/blackened food fad, Zagat restaurant guides (New York City)
SOURCES: The Century in Food:America's Fads and Favorites, Beverly Bundy [Collector Press:Portland 2002] (p. 157-159); The Food Chronology, James Trager [Henry Holt:New York] 1995; "They're new on the shelves," Fran Zell, Chicago Tribune, October 2, 1975 (p. WA24)
"Betty Crocker Wild Blueberry Muffin Mix (box, can of blueberries inside), General Mills Kix (breakfast cereal, offer for Oneida Community stainless steel silverware set), Bisquick, Betty Crocker Ready To Serve Pudding (cans, flavors: tapioca, rice, chocolate, vanilla, butterscotch, chocolate fudge & lemon), General Mills Total (breakfast cereal), Green Giant Rice Medley (frozen, rice with peas and mushrooms), Betty Crocker Chocolate Fudge Frosting Mix (box), Gold Medal Enriched Alll Purpose Flour (paper sack; recipe for "One-Rise Mixer Breads" Hot Cross Buns, Cheese-pepper Bread, Sesame Mini-Loaves and Butterscotch Coffee Round inside sack), Cream of Rice (box, recipe for Cheese Souffle for bland diets), Pillsbury frosting mixes (cocoanut almond, coconut pcean, caramel; recipes for Choco-Crown Turnabout Cake, Fudge-Full Peanut-Butter Bars, Cocolate Caramel Cake), Campbell's Soup (tomato, vegetable, chicken noodle), Hunt's Tomato Sauce (can), Kraft Miracle Whip (recipe for Penthouse Pizza), Betty Crocker Upside Down Cake Mix and Topping (with cans of pineapple, apple cinnamon & cherry topping), Betty Crocker New Homemade Bread Mix (box, 'makes 1 1/2-LB white loaf, 'just add water, knead, shape & let rise and bake'), Sunkist Navel Oranges, Kellogg's Corn Flakes & Rice Krispies (breakfast cereals, with offer for "Kay Kellogg's Creative Cookery," 64 page booklet), Dream Whip Whipped Topping Mix (box), recipe for Dream Cake), Sophie Mae Peanut Brittle (gold box), B in B Whole Crown Mushrooms (can, recipe for Oven Beef Burgundy), Pennsylvania Dutch Egg Noodles, Dumpling Egg Noodles, Bott Boi & Kluski (recipes for Noodles Alfredo, Chicken and Dumpling Pie, Refreshing Noodle salad, Baked Lasagne, Short Ribs and Noodles), Campbell's Chunkey Soup (new!, beef, chicken, vegetable & turkey flavors, ready to serve), Gold Medal Wondra Quick Mixing Flour, LeSeuer Very Early Young Small Early Peas (can), Kraft Italian dressing (bottle, picture of Venice gondolas on label), Stuckey's restaurants (roadside eatery, free box of pecan candy wtih 10 gallon gas purchase), Katheryn Beich Candies (milk chocolate, Golden Crumbles, Katydids, Krumble Krunch, Butter Toffee, Chocolate Truffles, Almonds N' Chocolate, Party Nuts, Mint Wafers).
---Better Homes and Gardens, February 1971
Meat main dishes: Steak with Mushroom-Wine Sauce, Onion-Topped Steak, Sweet-and-Sour Stir-Fried Beef, Fruited Pot Roast, Enchiladas, Swiss Steak, Savory Beef Short Ribs, Burgers with Mushroom and Onions, Skillet Spaghetti, Skillet Stroganoff, Pizza Casserole, Cheeseburger Pie, Pork Chops with Kiwi Sauce, Ham and Zucchini Skillet, Lasagne.
Poultry & Seafood: Curried Chicken, Chicken & Mushrooms, Chicken Scallopini, One-Dish Chow Mein, Crunchy Chicken Salad, Chicken Mozzarella, Chicken-Broccoli Deluxe, Fish Divan, Tuna-Macaroni Skillet, Shrimp and Zucchini, Imposible Salmon Pie, Tuna Linguini Casserole
Cheese, Eggs & Dried Beans: Fettuccini with Pepperoni, Chili-Cheese Macaroni Casserole, Broccoli-Mushroom Spaghetti, Cheese-Onion Casserole, Fiesta Rice, Cheese, Bacon and Tomato Pie, Vegetable Lasagne, Macaroni and Cheese, Eggs Rarebit, Vegetable Omelet, Eggs and Corn Scramble, Scrambled Eggs Pie, Refried Bean Bake, Mexican Bean Patties, Vegetable Bean Salad
Salads, Vegetables & Serve-withs: Easy Caesar Salad, Antipasto Toss, Tossed Salad with Walnuts, Tossed Fruit Salad, Fruit and Spinach Salad, Marinated Whole Tomatoes, Easy Cucumber Salad, Carrots and Pineapple, Onions with Blue Cheese, Mushrooms and Broccoli, Baked Potato Slices, Potato Puffs, Twice-Baked Yams, Broiled Squash Kabobs, Stuffed Zucchini
Breads: Baked Parmesan Squares, Cheese Twists, Toasted Breadsticks, Cheese and Dill Muffins, Granola Bread
Sandwiches & Soups: Denver Pocket Sandwiches, Ham-Pineapple Sandwiches, Sausage Burritos, Hot Dog Roll-Ups, Broiled Cheese Sandwiches, Shrimp Club Sandwiches, Chiliburgers in Crusts, Sloppy Joes, Hot Club Sandwiches, French Onion Soup, Italian Vegetable Soup, Chunky Beef-Noodle Soup, Cold Vegetable Soup
Appetizers, Beverages & Desserts: Avocado Spread, Chilies Con Queso, Brie with Almonds, Parmesan Nuts, Potato Wedges, Spicy Vegetable Dip, Meatball Appetizers, Glazed Chicken Wings, Hot Spiced Wine, Spiced Coffee, Cranberry Cooler, Tomato Refresher, Banana Daquiries, Frozen Daquiri, Sauteed Pineapple, Gingered Pineapple, Berries Chantilly, Granola, Peanut Butter Bars, Chocolate Chip Squares, Cherry-Almond Drops, Sesame Wafers, Chocolate-Brickle Drops.
Party menus (p. 148-9)
Special Dinner for the Family: Pork Scalloppini, Buttered Spaghetti, Stuffed Zucchini, Tossed Salad with Walnuts, Strawberry cream
Do-Ahead Summer Supper:Eggs and Rice Salad, Marinated Whole Tomatoes, Oatmeal-Raisin Muffins, Berries Chantilly, Iced Coffee
Plan-Ahead Dinner: Savory Beef Short Ribs, Poppy Seed Noodles, Whoe Green Beans, Carrot Salad, Ice Cream Squares
Dinner for Guests: Frozen Daquiri, Brie with Almonds, Fruited Pot Roast, Potato Puffs, Broccoli Spears with Lemon, Lettuce and Mushroom Salad, Berry-Almond Dessert
Weekend Brunch: Eggs-stuffing Casserole, Bacon or Sausage, Broccoli Spears, Fruit and Spinach Salad, Spiced Coffee
A Family Affair Pottage Puree Crecy, Marinated Boned Lamb with Zanfandel Sauce, Joyce's Basque Beans, Quick Zucchini, Coeur a la Creme
Make-Ahead Seafood Dinner: Liver Pater, Vintner's Salad, Processor French Bread, Cioppino, Biscuit Tortoni
Italian Flair Caviar Mousse, Veal wtih Pesto and Orzo, Arugula Salad with Creamy Dijon Dressing, Chocolate Apricot Roll
French Country Feast Mushroom, Fennel and Pepperoni Salad, Chicken with Braised Garlic and Rosemary, Potates Boulangere, Vermouth-Glazed Pears
Festive Springtime Fare Springtime Spaghtettini, Grilled Salmon with Tarragon Mayonnaise, Positively West Coast Salad, Almond Tulips with Fresh Banana Ice
Easy Elegance Hors d'Oeuvres, Cream of Watercress Soup, Seafood Quenelles Mousseline, Beef Richelieur with Madeira Sauce, Stuffed Turnips, Chestnut Roll
Make-Ahead French Feast Eggplant Tempura-Style with Red Onion Relish, Endive-Cress Salad, Boeuf a la Ficelle, Pommes Dauphine, Sauteed Leeks, Gourmandise with Sauteed Pine Nuts, Sorbet au Cabernet with Slicec Kiwi, Langues de Chats
A Touch of Sophistication Shrimp in Mustard Sauce with Corn Bread Rounds, Tomato Granite with Pernod, Medallions of Veal in Brown Sauce with Port and Ginger, Paillasson, Mushroom and Pine Nut Salad with Raspberry Vinegar Dressing, Walnut Tart
Stylish Celebration Champagne Framboise, Anchovy Puffs, Carrot Soup, Crown Roast of Lamb with Wild Rice, Lamb Meatballs and Glazed May Apples, Green Vegetable Medley, Assorted Cheeses, Sage Bread, Green Grape Tart, Chocolate Torte
Cook and Casual Chilled Cream of Watercress Soup, Lobster with Curried Mayonnaise, Rice and Vegetable Salad, Cucumber-Stuffed Tomatoes, Cheese and Fruit
Easy Buffet for Friends Wine and Champagne Punch, Tomatoes Pesto, Benne Biscuits, Malibu Paella, Monkey Bread, Melange of Frozen Desserts with Fresh Fruit, Gingersnaps
Dieters' Dinner Party Stuffed Beet Salad, Salmon with Apples, Pears and Limes, Brown Rice Milanese, Green Beans--Open Sesame, Buttermilk Strawberry Sherbet
Slim Cuisine With Style Crustless Spinach Quiche, Crudites with Fresh Tomato sauce, Scaloppine of Salmon with Mexican Green Sauce, Spiced Chicken Strips, Sesame Broccoli, Broiled Leg of Lamb, Carrot Puree, Chocolate Sherbet, Frozen Lemon Cream
"Cocktails! party invitations read...I had no idea whether cocktail parties were going on around me in Michigan; my only knowledge of them came from those Myrna Loy/ William Powell movies 'Let's have a cocktail!' one would say, striking an instant note of gaiety, and at once the mirrored walls, glass tables, flower vases and triangular crystal ashtrays sparkled in response. A merry to-do was made over the mixing, the stirring, the straining, the pouring; a great deal of badinage over the dryness of the martini. A settling of satin sofa pillows, tinkling glasses, selecting of cigarets and an exciting interplay of smiles and meaningful looks indicated that cocktails were the elixir of joy...No, by the time age allowed me to have cocktails, the age of cocktails was gone...You didn't meet for cocktails anymore; you had a drink before dinner. Glass in hand, you did not sit and laugh and engage in banter and sip again--no, three quick gulps and you were through; hurry up or we'll miss our dinner reservation. They don't have cocktail hours anymore, they have happy hours, which refer not at all to the merriment of the company but only to the price of the drinks. Since those childhood memories I haven't seen a straight cocktail party invitation' they're all no-host bars, which means the drinks are on you...The purpose is no longer 'jollity'...but to make money--a fundraiser, a poitical mixer, a campaign coffer fattener...Instead of a cocktail party why don't they simply call it a Money Raiser With Cocktails If You Want To Buy Them? And even these are fast giving way to wine and cheese parties...Now it's 'Red or white?' and that's it...Gloop--there she goes in your glass--or worse, plastic."
---"Things as seen: it's cocktail time," Miv Schaaf, Los Angeles Times, March 22, 1981 (p. O30)
"The most highly caloric event in history was not the wedding of some medieval king, but the marriage of the cocktail with the snack. Never before or since have so many different foods been invited to a single table. Ordinary culinary boundaries are ignored and routine dietary considerations forgotten in celebration of the cocktail hour. The definition of cocktail food...is anything that tastes good with strong drink...Cocktail food can be eaten with a fork or fingers, or sipped in hot bouillon with a shot of whiskey (in which the cocktail becomes part of the food). It can be dipped, spread or speared. It can be sandwiches-open, closed, stacked or rolled It can be elaborate doughs filled and formed into cunning shapes, from Chinese steamed dumplings to Argentine baked empanadas. The only requirement for cocktail food is that it must be possible to eat it in very small portions--and endlessly, without noticing that you are actually eating. In other words, cocktail food is expected to be silent calories which, unlike whipped cream cakes that scream their extravagance, slide down with just a little crunch or piquancy that couldn't possibly spoil one's appetite or wreck one's diet..."
---"The Cocktail's Companions," Phyllis C. Richman, Washington Post, February 4, 1982 (section: Food, p. E1)
"Having friends for cocktails, which I think of as a 6 to 8 o'clock happening, is gratifying...Cocktail Party for 24, Herbed Scallops, Marinated Shrimp, Eggs with Curry, Sardines, Smoked Oysters and Anchovy Stuffings, Filled Bread Ring, Chicken Liver Pate, Comforting End-of-Party Soup."
---"Friends & Finger Foods, Cocktails & Conversation, Washington Post, May 9, 1982 (p. E1)
"The food chosen to be festive and fresh...with a few hot zippy dishes, like the beef satay and curried lamb added for their distinct flavors...The Black Forest canapes, ...in which Brie, a slice of pink ham and a sprig of good black bread...The crudites...are built up on a bed of crushed ice and a field of broccoli and cauliflower... The menu also included angels on horseback (oysters wrapped in bacon), fried wontons, fillet of beef on bernaise-butter toast, crabmeat in snow-pea pods and lemon shrimp...And this is not meant to be a dinner substitute, although some people may be satisfied enough to consider it such...estimate between 10 and 15 hors d'oeuvres per person, with 10 or 11 choices. Variety is fun."
---"Cocktails on the Terrace," Elizabeth Hawes, New York Times, May 1, 1984 (p. SMA22)
[NOTE: This article mentions Margaritas and chilled white wine.]
"Cocktails at seven. Perhaps no other social phrase sounds so stylish, so grown-up and, uttered from the right lips, so downright seductive. After having virtually evaporated in the laid-back '70s, cocktail parties are just a swizle stick a way from being hot again. The sound of the cocktail shaker again is being heard in the land. The '80s twist to the cocktail party is that young, upwardy mobile professionals, fondly known as Yuppies, are now holding the cocktail shakers. These babyboomers-turned-trend-eaters are reclaiming the cocktail party from its social exile among the young by adding it to their repertoire of Yuppie-isms, which includes such neo-conservative items as black tie, good manners and anything that smacks of quality or making it. Immortalized in the cafe society days by Noel Coward, pilloried in its suburban dreariness by John Cheever and perceived by the younger set as a decadent, elitist Estabishment throwback in the '60s and '70s, the cocktail party even fizzled a bit among their elders, particularly during the no-frills Carter years, a period notably bereft of smart Washington soirees. Some credit Nancy Reagan with reviving the cocktail party and restoring it, along with glitter and glamor...'[Cocktail parties] existed 10 years ago, but I think we all looked at them as being stodgy, stiff and artificial. It's almost like the club we were ever let into, and now that we're in and realize that they don't have to be that way.'... Helen Gurley Brown, editor of Cosmopolitan...[said] 'I never go to one...Cocktail parties...in my opinion, range all the way from tedious to gruesome...' Rene Peyrat, food and beverage director at the chic Carlyle Hotel, says, 'Champagne as come to be very, very fashionable.' As an aperitif, he says, favorites include Kir Royale, champagne with a touch of cassis. Over at the Waldorf-Astoria's Bull and Bear Bar, where corporate executives go for cocktails, light-colored drinks, especially vodka-based, are the vogue...In Chicago, whiskey sours are passee and pink ladies are dead, but strawberry daquiris and margaritas and coming on strong and the martini and Manhattan are hanging in there. Oceans of white wine are still being poured at cocktail time all over the country, but the tide, some say, is beginning to turn...The new cocktail party is not about liquor; it's about people..."
---"Return of the Cocktail Party," Lisa Anderson, Chicago Tribune, October 3, 1984 (p. E3)
"Festive specialty drinks for the holidays, where ...traditionally alcoholic and loaded with calories, can be a dangerzone for waist-watchers as well as for persons who might be restricting their alcohol intake. Whether you call them mocktails, un-cocktails or just plain coolers, non-alcoholic drinks are the perfect choice for people who are cutting down on alcohol and sweets for health and fitness reasons and an especially wise choice for those who simply don't want to drink and drive...Liven up the presentation of these taste-tempting alternatives by serving them in elegant crystal stemware...Fruit juice is a wonderful taste companions for club soda, ginger ale and cream..."
---"Cocktails That are Cool, Smooth and Non-Alcoholic," Toni Tipton, Los Angeles Times, May 23, 1985 (p. I-37)
[NOTE: Mocktail recipes in this article are Pink Grapefruit Fizz, Salty Puppy, Festive Fruity Froth, Triple Citrus Tea Tempter, Peach Melba Tea Shake, Coconut Cooler, Strawberry-Not-A-Colada, Sweet and Sour Mary, Tommy O'Collins, and Dublin Cream Cordial.]
"For informal entertaining there's just no simpler way to go than the cocktail party. With some careful planning and plenty of manageable finger foods, the host or hostess is almost assured a success. The warm weather days of of summer make early evening gatherings of friends and family especially convival...Invitations to a cocktail party are usually written and sent out to to three weeks in advance. The usual hours for cocktails are between 5 or 6 p.m. and 8 p.m.. Guests may come and go as they please. Plan to serve one or two different kinds of mixed drinks and an assortment of hard liquors with mixes. Wine and beer as well as non-alcoholic beverages, should be served. If space permits, set up miniature bars in different rooms so guests can prepare their own drinks. If you do not have the space, pre-mix the drinks and pass them around on trays with cocktail napkins or reserve pitchers of pre-mixed drinks so guests can help themselves. Because people will probably be standing and mingling, make sure the food is easy to eat with fingers. Cocktail foods can be hot, cold or both. Cheese platters and crudites or raw vegetables cut for dipping are suitable, as well as the quintessential cocktail food: canapes or other hor d'oeuvres. Hor d'oeuvre trays can be passed around or set up in convenient areas of the room. Be sure to provide ample napkins and wood picks and arrange small bowls throughout the house."
---"An Invitation to the Cocktail Party: It's Become a Simplified, Yet Elegant, Way of of Entertaining," Toni Tipton, Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1985 (p. K51)
[NOTE: Recipes published in this article include: Smoky Frankfurter Bites, Swiss Tartlets, Cheese and Caviar Rounds, Piquant Ham Canapes, Cheese Pinwheels, Cheese Twists, Tangy Marinated Vegetables and Tiny Tomato Aspics.]
"Cocktail parties! My parents...painfully undertook the ritual once a year. Edibles were sparse...but drinks, under my father's direction, were generous. After a while the noise level would rise agreeably so the gathering could be voted a success. Thank goodness entertaining today is less formal, with invitations on the phone. This is emphatically the moment to do your own thing, not emulate a catering service. Cocktails at home should be homey, the food based on local, seasonal ingredients. The drinks should be yoour favorite wines, perhaps a fruit punch, or a choice of hard liquor...The Menu: Smoked Salmon and Caviar Checkerboard, Ham and Turkey Checkerboard, Crudites and Red Hot Chili Mayonnaise, Goat Cheese and Hazelnut Dip, Cheese Palm Leaves, Anchovy Cartwheels. Drinks: your choice of liquor, wines, fruit juices and sodas."
---"Guest Book: The Cocktail Party Revival, Anne Willan, Washington Post, December 1, 1985 (p. K1)
"What to serve at a large cocktail party? Spring vegetables are the answer at this time of year. Crudities--raw or blanched vegetables--are hardly new but they are always popular, especially with the host or hostess who does not have to worry about taking sizzling trays out of the oven during the evening, or spending hours beforehand making complicated little things with puff pastry. Recently I served a heapig selection of asparagus spears (blanched), red and yellow pepper florets, carrot sticks, cherry tomatoes cut in thin slices. Baby vegetables such as zucchini...and other squash are also good, lightly blanched and served whole. Red cabbage or kale make an attractive base for the display. I like to serve a choice of oil-based dips such as pinzimonoil, an Italian dip made with extra-virgin olive oil lemon and coarse salt, or a Chinese dip made with strong sesame oil mixed with sesame paste. Garlic is excellent in the latter. When I lived in Mexico I learned to make guacamole with fresh chilies, chopped up coarsely so that the sauce was chunky instead of smooth. It has a delicious flavor and is equally good with tortilla chips or crudites. A mixture of sun-dried and fresh tomatoes blended together is superb on crackers or as a dip, and goes really well with a little fresh ricotta cheese on top."
---"Raw or Blanched Vegetables, Cocktails for 70," Moira Hodgson, New York Times, May 17, 1987 (p. 851)
[NOTE: This article offer recipes for Guacamole, Tomato Spread with Ricotta Cheese, Sesame Dip & Sesame-Dijon Dip.]
"It's fashionable for people to bemoan cocktail parties. They're so noisy. They can be smoky. And you're expected to stand around for hours balancing a drink in one hand and a nibble in the other. And too often, the food is lousy--cocktail treats on wood picks, bowls of salted peanuts grayish chicken livers wrapped in bacon and cold mini--quiches...But cocktail parties needn't be grim affairs for either the hostess-who may be overwhelmed by the thought of wine stains on her carpet-- or for the guests who can think of a million other places they'd rather be for two hours on a Friday night. They can be fun if they're well planned. Here are a few tips:--Organize a guest list well in advance. Make sure there will be an interesting mix of people and age groups. Avoid all-office parties like the plague. They tend to be very boring for spouses. Make sure every person invited knows at least two other people. That was, nobody will feel like a wallflower.--Ordering alcoholic beverages depends a lot on the age of the guests. Those older than 50 tend to prefer hard liquor; younger people drink wine. Don't serve red wine at a cocktail party. You're just asking for a stained carpet or couch.--Never underestimate the importance of food at a cocktail party. Such parties are always held around 6 p.m., when people are starving. You don't want guests drinking on an empty stomach and leaving drunk. So give them lots of food and make it good. And keep in mind that many friendships have been made beside the warmed brie and many deals have been struck over the steak tartare.--Don't be afraid to hire a teenage baby sitter to help with kitchen chores and passing hors d'oeuvres. It's good experience...But make arrangements well in advance. If you've invited lots of neighbors, baby sitters will be in short supply."
---"Cocktail Parties Should be Planned in Advance," Kathleen Walker, Los Angeles Times, December 10, 1987 (p. V-A37)
"The celebration of the new year is more often toasted with a glass of good cheer--or two or three or more--at that lively American institution, the cocktail party. It is well known that you are better off eating something while you drink. That's why hors d'ourvres were invented. But for the quantity of booze consumed waiting to welcome on the New Year, chips and dips, peanuts and pretzels and platters of cute little cut up vegetables don't cut it. You need something more substantial. You need carbohydrates and plenty of protein. Rillettes--or potted meats as the English call them--are cooked meat, poultry or fish that have been pounded or shredded into fibers, mixed with lard or butter, then preserved in little stoneware, porcelain or glass crocks..."
---"Carbohydrates, Protein Counteract Cocktails," Merle Ellis, Los Angeles Times, December 28, 1989 (p. H19)
[NOTE: This article offers recipes for Beef Rillette, Ham and Cheese Rillette and Turkey and Ham Rillette.]
- (popular items & memories)
Fashionable Foods:Seven Decades of Food Fads, Sylvia Lovegren
---excellent for social context, commentary, & selected recipes
Century in Food: America's Fads and Favorites, Beverly Bundy
---good for popular fads & new food introductions
- Cookbooks (standard home meals, party planners, celebrity chef fare)
- Women's & food magazines (trendy recipes, suggested menus, tablesettings, ads sometimes have recipes)
- Newspapers (food ads list popular products & prices)
. Search date: 199 to retrieve all menus from the decade.
The concept of stacking foods is not entirely new. Antonin Careme (19th century French pastry chef) was by trade an architect. His sugarwork and pastry creations were elaborate and large. Colonial era iced (sugar coated) fruit pyramids were popular holiday centerpieces. Victorian-era multi-tiered wedding cakes were visual focal points. Of course, these "tall foods" were not served to individual diners. They were cut and served by waitstaff. The ultimate tall food afficianado was Dagwood Bumstead, whose have become American icons. Triple decker have been popular since the 1920s.
"When Gotham Bar and Grill opened in the early 1980's, it epitomized the high-living, brash-spending decade. The warehouse space on East 12th Street was an eclectic meld of new-wave Americana and Italian moderne...The dishes soar in height as well as flavor. Gotham Bar and Grill is the home of tall food. The salads look like mountain ranges. The delectable sauteed soft-shelled crabs are perched high on pillars of grilled yellow and green squash that flank a pyramid of couscous and tasty baby bock choy. The roast chicken is excellent, but it is served with such a towering haystack of fried matchstick potatoes that the diner's initial response is to call for a pitchfork and start making bales. Inevitably, the soaring constructions collapse and the diner becomes the clean-up crew."
---"Restaurants:: A survivor from the high-living of the 80's and some reasons for its survival in the 90's," Molly O'Neill, New York Times, August 27, 1993 (p. C24)
"After years of serving up famine-sized portions known as nouvelle cuisine, chefs have taken a U-turn. Boasting about their 'architectural presentation' and comparing one another's 'dish verticality,' chefs in some cases are building dishes that rise more than 14 inches off the table...At New York's Gotham Bar & Grill, considered by many to be the birthplace of tall food, chefs arrange asparagus spears in square latticework formations that look like lincoln Logs. The chicken breast, which is topped with a 12-inch tower of shoestring potatoes, is daunting to diner[s]...What's up with the stratospheric cuisine? For chefs, especially the young Turks of the culinary world, the gravity-defying kitchen feats are a way of getting notice and heightening the sensation for diners. As chefs point out, people eat first with their eyes. Some have another reason as well. 'It allows me to charge a little bit more,' says Roger Kaplan, City Grill's executive chef. 'people see that something more went into it.' His Towering Tuna appetizer is on the menu at . No dish is too lowly to be built up. Salads, pastas, vegetables, meats, desserts--all can be stacked high if the kitchen uses the right tools. At Mrs. Park's Tavern, Mr. Ubert shows off an order of onion rings served on the handle of a miniature butter churn. Across the country, broccoli , which used to be served in tiny flowerets, now assail you vertically, flowers down, with the stalks toward the heavens. Shards of lettuce are stuck into food like a sign in the front yard. Potatoes, whose gluey starches make them a snap to build tall, are a big favorite among chefs in this construction business. Chicago Tribune food critic Phil Vettel likes tall food. 'It's a statement. It's not easy to do, and it brings out the 'ooohs ' and 'aaahs,'' he says. 'As a customer, you just sit there and think about the engineering. You say, 'How did they do that?''..But some food critics are already tiring of the trend. They say the lengths to which chefs will go are getting ridiculous...At some restaurants, the teetering meals sometimes fall apart on the way to the table, annoying the waiters and forcing chefs to 'replate' them or prop them up...Alfred Portale, chef of the Gotham Bar & Grill, agrees that the trend is out of hand...At least one etiquette expert condemns tall food as an unfair attempt by chefs to make dining awkward. 'The true chef thinks about the enjoyment and ease of eating,' says Letitia Baldridge in her 'New Complete Guide to Executive Manners.' When you are accosted by tall food, Mrs. Baldridge recommends that you hold the top of it with your hand and knock it over with a spoon. 'You have every right to use your fingers if it keeps your clothes from being ruined,' she says. But tall food seems here to stay. And everybody is doing it, from fast-foodplaces to airlines. McDonalds recently featured a Super Hero sandwich, a three-layered monster stuffed with slabs of beef. Burger King claims its Whopper sandwich now stands 2 5/8 inches high, thanks to the company's 'Bigger, Better Burger' campaign. For its 'Connoisseur' business-class service, United Airlines now teaches flight attendants to stack asparagus teepee-style and, this summer, briefly served a pasta casserole so high that the lids of the dinner trays popped off when flight attendants pulled them out of the oven. Then too, some foods have always been tall. The three-decker club sandwich is a classic, as is the ice-cream sundae. The Carnegie Deli in New York has always served sandwiches impossible to get your mouth around. Morton's of Chicago has long offered a filet mignon the size of a Rubik's Cube. Dagwood Bumstead, perhaps the original tall food fan, was way ahead of his time. He built his first Dagwood Sandwich back in 1936--a concoction of tongue, sardines and beans, slathered with onion and horseradish."
---"Restaurant Food, Taller and Taller, Reaches for the Stars," Carl Quintanilla, Wall Street Journal, September 22, 1995 (p. A1)
"Meal after meal, Alfred Portale reinvents himself. Turn on the stove, and this diminutive, fastidious, self-effacing chef is suddenly King Kong. He cooks tall, mountainous food that's irrepressibly bold. Nearly every plate that leaves his kitchen at Gotham Bar and Grill is a composition in perilous peaks. Consider the tower of wafer-thin potatoes, truffles and sea scallops wobbling on a pong of herb butter sauce. Or the pillar of roasted vegetables, trembling with anticipation. A haystack of needle-thin fries is heaped around a perfectly roasted chicken. It's almost as precarious as the quivering flan flanking a pyramid of lamb chops. This food is a felicitous for the dry cleaner as it is for the gourmand--food that collapses at the whisper of a fork. It is as if the 39-year-old chef must continually remind his Greenwich Village patrons that their best-laid plans are fragile indeed, vulnerable, at every turn, to human appetite. But even more appealing than the flavor and generosity of Portale's cooking is the way it tempts instinct and memory. For after the towers of scallops have crumbled, the fries have scattered and the vegetable pillar collapsed, one doesn't face ruin, exactly, but a heap of inchoate possibility...Portale himself professes to have no subtext when he cooks. He says only that his ingredients are American, his technique French. The dizzying effects he achieves are left for others to rhapsodize."
---"An Edible Complex: The diminutive Alfred Portale has a talent for making a mountain out of a morel," Molly O'Neill, New York Times, March 12, 1995 (p. SM89)
"Tall food isn't about to topple over, but some chefs wish they could cut it down to size. Take Christopher Gross' chocolate tower, a dessert the Phoenix-based chef created 13 years ago...Even if he wanted to take it off the menu, he couldn't. The dessert, a cylinder of chocolate mousse about 5 inches tall, represents about 25 percent of dessert sales at his 140-seat restaurant...Alfred Portale of Gotham Bar & Grill in New York, viewed by some as the architect of the tall-food craze, doesn't even want to talk about it anymore. 'He doesn't want to be seen as doing it for the sake of doing it,' says a spokesman for Portale...'The reason he does it goes beyond presentation...It's far from the fast thing he does. Taste is first.' In the nouvelle '80s, food tended to be fanned out flat on the plate. Then chefs like Portale started building up their food, from salads to desserts, to the point where New York magazine recently took out a measuring stick to actually see which chef could build the highest creation. While taste risks being lost to such architectural antics, several chefs say tall presentations are more than a flash in the pan. Adding height and structure to a plate creates visual excitement and also allows for a layering of tastes and textures...When food is laid out flat on a plate, customers have to put it together themselves...'The way [Norman Van Aken] design I want the flavors to become integrated by the intrusion of the fork and the knife.'...However, tall food does have a pitfall 'The dish has been handled too much...It's not going to be so a la minute as it should be.'...And customers enjoy tall food. 'There's always a bit of apprehension about how to disassemble it and how to attack it. That's part of the fun...Architecture belongs on the plate...as long as the emphasis is on taste as well. 'There are pastry chefs who possibly hide behind their architectural design because they don't know how to produce flavor.'"
---"Tall Food: A Tall Order," Louise Kramer, Nation's Restaurant News, January 15, 1996 (p. 29)
"Tall food now comes with a warning. Instead of surprising the customer with an architectural appetizer, salad or dessert, chefs are describing their fantastic structures on the menu. Is this a good thing? Perhaps. The diner who is not in the mood to tear down chocolate scaffolding or to destroy elaborate vegetable pyramids can opt for another dish. But by revealing the form as well as the ingredients in advance,some of the 'wow' may be subverted. Nonetheless, detailed descriptions are becoming the rule, not the exception, as plates of fancy constructions parade form kitchen to dining room across the country."
---"Chefs Build on Architectural Aesthetic As Structures Rise on Plates Nationwide," Florence Fabricant, Nation's Restaurant News, May 10, 1999 (p. 64)
Woman's Day, February 6, 1990: Doubletree Foods Lunch Bucket (individual portion microwavable meals: Fettucini Marinara, Beef Noodle Soup, Split Pea 'n Ham Soup, Spaghetti 'n Meat sauce, Hearty Chicken Soup, Country Vegetable Soup, Chili Mac, Scallopped Potatoes with Ham Chunks, Macaroni n' Beef, Chicken Noodle Soup, Vegetable Beef soup, Chili With Beans, Pasta Italiano, Hearty Beef Stew, Lasagna, Pasta 'n Chicken), Slim-Fast & Untra Slim fast (powdered weight loss beverage, recipes for Cristina's [Ferarre] Pina Colada and Mocha Creme), Kikkoman Teriyaki Baste & Glaze, Teriyaki sauce, Stir-Fry Sauce, Soy Sauce, Sweet & Sour Sauce (bottles, Martin Yan cooking video offer), Kraft General Foods Log cabin Lite (pancake syrup), Betty Crocker Hamburger Helper (box, Beef Noodle), Betty Crocker Scalloped Potatoes (box), Best Foods Hellmann's Cholesterol Free Reduced Calorie Mayonnaise (jar), Veg-All (canned vegetables, recipe for Veg-All Italian Soup), Del Monte Whole Kernel Corn (can, recipe for Quick Corn Mazatlan), Tetley Naturally Decaffeinated Tea Bags (box), Swanson Premium Chunk White Chicken in Water (can, recipes for Chicken Fiesta salad and Chicken in a Pocket), Campbell Soup Company Le Menu Light Side (frozen entrees, Herb and Roasted Chicken), General Foods Shake' n Bake (box, chicken flavor), Gold Bond Ice Cream Sugar-Free Fudgsicles (Fudge Pops), Ice Pops & Creamsicle Cream Pops, Kellogg's All-Bran with Extra Fiber (breakfast cereal), Fleischmann's Corn Oil Spread (tub) and Margarine (sticks), Flesichmann's Egg Beaters (regular and vegetable omelette mix, "Zero cholesterol, zero fat"), Dole Pineapple Juice (frozen concentrate & cardboard carton, also Pineapple Orange, Pine-Orange Banana, Pine-Orange-Guava, Pine-Passion-Banana, Pineapple Grapefruit), Quaker Oat Bran (new, box with packets, flavors: Apple & Spice, raisin & Cinnamon, Regular), Hunt's Minute Gourmet (box, Microweavable Add-Meat Dinner, sauce, seasoning & microwave bag; varieties Sweet & Sour Chicken, Chicken Fettuccini Alfredo, Chicken Cacciatore, Oriental Beef, Cajun Pork, Barbecured Chicken, Italian Meatballs with Sauce), Aunt Jemima Lite syrup, Heinz Seafood Cocktail Sauce, Heinz Chili Sauce (recipe for Chicken Romano), Vlasic Bread & Butter Pickles (recipes for Vlasic Plump Pocket Turkey & Vlasic Boy-Oh-Boy sandwiches), Del Monte Sliced Peaches (can, in heavy syrup), Heinz 57 Sauce.
Woman's Day, June 18, 1991: Lactaide Lactose Reduced Lowfat Milk (cardboard container, also drops and caplets), Ultra Slim-Fast (weight loss beverage, canister, chocolate flavor, celebrity endorsements), Oscar Meyer Deli-Thin Honey Ham (plastic Zip-Pak), Kraft Hellmann's Cholesterol-Free Eeduced Calorie Mayonnaise & Kraft Free (new, fat free, cholesterol free), Mrs. Dash seasonings (shaker bottle: original blend, extra spicy, salt-free, low pepper, lemon & herb, garlic & herb), Martinson Microwave Coffee Bags (regular & decaffeinated, like tea bags), Kraft Cheez Whiz (jar), McCormick Salad Supreme Seasoning (spix mix) & Cremette pastas (box, medium shells, elbows, spaghetti, rotini (recipes for Heavenly Ham Salad, Summer's Harvest Salad, Italiano Rotini Salad & Garden Stir-Fry Salad), A1 Steak Sauce (recipe for Grilled Steak and Asparagus Salad, Steak Marinade Italiano), Pet-Ritz Deep Dish Pie Crust Shells (frozen, recipe for Fresh Strawberry Cheesecake Pie), Wasa Crispbread (box), McCormick Seasoned Pepper, McCormick Lemon & Pepper, Sure-Jell (ruit pectin for home canning, recipe for Sure-Jell Easy Strawberry Jam), Borden Lite-Line American Flavor Pasteurized Process Cheese Product, Centrum MultiVitamins (advanced formula), Ensure (can, nutrition supplement; vanilla, chocolate & strawberry flavors), Dole Pineapple Juices, Wesson Pure Olive Oil (new, "light & mild"), Kraft Miracle Whip Free (new, "fat free, cholesterol free, nonfat dressing), Kraft Singles (16 individually wrapped cheese slices), Kraft Shredded Mozzarella Cheese (plastic pouch; recipe for Fresh Pita Pizza), Kraft Miracle Whip (recipe for Fast 2-Way Chicken), Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Dinner (box, original, recipe for Mac & Cheese Mix-Ins), Kraft Velveeta Shells & Cheese (box, flavors: Tough of Mexico, Original, Bits O'bacon), Kraft Free Salad Dressings (new, Catalina, Blue Cheese, Italian, Ranch, Thousand Island, French), Minute Microwave Dishes (box, Cheddar Cheese, Broccoli & Rice, microwaveable), Hunts Tomato sauce, Tomato Sauce Italian, Whole Tomatoes, Spaghetti Sauce, Tomato Paste, Stewed Tomatoes (cans, recipe for Laurie's [Dale] Stuff Mushrooms), Stella Asiago Cheese, Fruit Fresh Fruit Protector (jar, stops browning, protects flavor), Lipton Teas (decaffeinated teabags) & powdered Iced Tea Mixes (decaffeinated, low calorie, sugar-Free), Hostess Fat Free Breakfasts (new, box, Cinnamon Crumb Coffee Cake, Blueberry Muffins, Apple Streusel Muffins), Turkey Store Boneless Fresh Turkey Breast Slices (recipe for Turkey Sauteed with Pears & Pecans), Cook's ham (sliced), Del Monte Vegetable Classics (new, frozen, microwave-ready; Potatoes au Gratin).
Woman's Day, September 1, 1993: Pork (American Pork Producers, "The Other White Meat," recipe for Peachy Pork Picante), Ensure (can, liquid nutrition supplement; regular, PLUS high calorie and With Fiber, vanilla flavor), Betty Crocker Inbredibites (bite-sized granola sandwiches with chocolate, peanut butter, and vanilla creme fillings), Mylanta Natural Fiber Supplement (orange flavor), Kraft General Foods Shake 'N Bake (Test Your Pork IQ quiz, original, hot & spicy and barbecue flavors), Hershey's Kisses (regular and almond), Nature Valley Granola Bars, Beef (Beef Industry Council and Beef Board, "Beef: it's What's For Dinner," recipe for Thai beef with Noodles), ConAgra Healthy Choice cold cuts (turkey breast, cooked ham, franks low fat smoked sausage and ground beef), Wishbone Salad Dressing (new, Honey Dijon flavor, shaker top), Sunny Delight Orange Drink (with calcium, bottle), La Choy Sweet & Sour sauce, Soy Sauce (recipe for Kung Fu Burgers), Smucker's Magic Shell (squeeze bottle) and Fudge Topping (jar, both for ice cream), Stella Cheeses (mellow Mild, Aged Asiago, Fontinella, Kasseri, Provolone, Mozzarella, Romano, Gorgonzola, Blue, Aged Provolone, Ricotta, Feta, Parmesan, Italian Sharp), Ziploc Pleated Sandwich Bags ("Gripper Zipper"), Jello-O Gelatin Dessert (new watermelon flavor, recipe for Watermelon Jigglers), Swiss Colony Macadamia Nut Chocolates & Petits Fours.
Woman's Day, August 8, 1995: Kraft Peppercorn Ranch Salad Dressing, Crystal Light Tropical Passions (new, sugar-free juice mixes, Strawberry Kiwi, Passion Fruit Pineapple, Strawberry Orange Banana), Lender's Bagels (frozen), General Foods International Coffees (tins, French Vanilla Cafe, Italian Cappuccino, Kahlua, Suisse Mocha, Viennese Chocoalte cafe), General Mills Nature Valley Low Fat Fruit Granola (new), Duncan Hines Fudge Brownie Cookie Mix, Duncan Hines Cinnamon Bar Mix, Ensure nutrient supplement drink (can, High Protein, Ensure Plus, Ensure with Fiber, Regular, vanilla), Betty Crocker Sunkist Lemon Bars, Easy Layer Bars, Cookie Bars, Betty Crocker's No Bake Dessert Mixes (Cookies 'n Creme, Coconut Cream, Chocolate French Silk, Banana Cream, Lemon Supreme), Starburst Jellybeans, Athens Foods Mini Fillo Dough Shells (new, frozen, recipe for Vegetable Garden Snack), Post Golden Raisin Crisp breakfast cereal, General Mills Kix breakfast cereal, Welch's 100% White Grape Juice (frozen concentrate & cans, for babies), Quaker Fat Free Caramel Corn Corn Cakes (also Banana Crunch, White Cheddar), Oscar Meyer Free cold cuts (new turkey, chicken, bologna & franks), Kraft Free Singles (cheese), Gerber Graduates (juice boxes, cookies, pretzels for toddlers), Healthy Choice Fat Free cheeses & cold cuts (recipe for Healthy Choice Pasta Medley Salad), Post Great Grains breakfast cereal (wtih rasiisns, dates & pecans), Cool Whip (regular & Lite, add to rootbeer for float), Turkey Store Lean Ground Fresh Turkey (recipe for Turkey Chili), Milk (National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Baord), Reynolds Wrap, Kellogg's Corn Flakes, General Mills Total Corn Flakes, California Ripe Olives, Mrs. Dash spice mix (recipes for Mrs. Dash Pronto Pizza, Mrs. Dask Lemon Pepper Steak), Bush's Baked Beans (can), Molly McButter (butter bud substitute, fat free, regular, sour cream, garlic & herb, cheese, recipe fro Molly McButter Fat Free Treats (like Rice Krispies Treats), Leaf candies ("no fat," bags: Switzer Cherry Stix, Jolly Rancher, Chuckles Jelly Rings, Jolly Rancher Mega Fruit Gummies, Good & Plenty), Lender's Bagelettes (frozen), Light & Lively Free Cottage Cheese, Mornignstar Farms Better'n Burgers (vegetarian burgers, fat free, microwavable).
Woman's Day, April 22, 1997: Folger's Coffee House Coffee (cans, drip grind, Columbian Supreme, Gourmet Supreme, French Roast), Kraft Shake 'N Bake Classic Italian (new, for chicken or pork), Nestle Pearson Nips (Chocolate Parfait, individually wrapped), Morton Salt ("Perks up coffee flavor"), Louis Rich Turkey Bacon, General Foods International Coffees, French Vanilla cafe (new, fat free & sugar free), Post Morning Traditions Cranberrry Almond Crunch breakfast cereal, Healthy Choice low fat Oven Roasted Turkey Breast cold cuts, Quaker Toasted Oatmeal breakfast cereal, Chef Boyardee ABC's & 123's (can, pasta & tomato sauce), Minute Maid Premium Orange Juice (wax cardboard conatiner, screwtop pour spout), Oscar Meyer Lunchables Deli Carryouts Sandiwches (Ham, Trukey & Cheddar Sub Sandwich with cookies; Turkey & Cheddar Bagel Sandwich with chocolate pudding "Finally, a lunch box for grown-ups"), Quaker Fat Free Caramel Corn Corn Cakes), French's Mustards (glass jar, Deli, Dijon & Classic Yellow Recipe for Mustard Glaze for ham), Eagle Brand Sweetened Condensed Milk & Keebler Ready Crust pie/tart shells (recipes for Easter Hunt Pie & Mini Easter Tarts), Ore Ida frozen Mashed Potatoes (bag, recipe for Three Cheese Potato Fluff), Sargento Pizza Double Cheese (resealable pouch, shredded, recipe for Tuscan Chicken & Three Cheese Pizza), Birdsys Easy Recipe Meal Starter (frozen, bag, Teriyaki Stir Fry "Just add chicken or beef"), Land O Lakes Butter (sticks), French's Frecnh Fried Real Onions (can, recipe for Original Green Bean Casserole), Jiff Creamy Peanut Butter (jar), Ralston Foods Multi-Bran Chex breakfast cereal, Kraft Stove Top Stuffing Mix (box, cannister, for chicken), Crisco Pure Vegetable Oil (plastic bottle), recipe for Pati Mitchell's garlic Chicken), Kraft Velveeta cheese (box, recipe for Salsa mac N' Cheese, contest for "best original main-dish" using at least 12 ounces of Velveeta), Claussen Kosher Dill Halves (jar), Hillshire Farm Deli Select cold cuts (low fat honey ham, pastrami, mesquite smoked turkey, smoked chicken breast, smoked turkey breast), Minute White Rice (box, recipes for Rice with Salsa & Beans, Rice with Mushroom Soup, Rice with Broccoli & Cheese), Kraft Free Singles (cheese made from skim milk), Kraft Free Mozzarella Cheese (resealable pouch), Kraft Free Nonnfat Grated Topping (shaker cheese), Mornignstar Farms Better 'n Burgrers (fat free vegetarian burgers), Wishbone Italian salad dressing (recipes for Wish-Bone Marinated Chicken Italiano, & Apricot-Glazed Chicken), Hormel Real Bacon Bits & Real Bacon Pieces (glass jars), Ro Tel Diced Tomatoes and Green Chilies (recipe for Ro Tel Spicy Meat Loaf), Hormel SPAM (photo suggesting it be used on breakfast sandwich with eggs, cheese & English muffins), Dannon Fat Free Chunky Fruit Yogurt (strawberry), Dole Pineapple Chunks and Pineapple Juice (recipes for Pineapple Spinach Salad, Tangy Poppy Seed Fruit Salad, Minted Fruit Rice Salad), Beatrice Reddi Wip (aerosol can, "Fifty Fruit Salute" recipe contest, create the official fruit dessert of your state), Pepperidge Farm Milano Cookies (bag).
The 21st century is a time of culinary irony. We celebrate product diversity while chowing comfort foods. We choose miniature products then consume more of them so they cancel each other out. We are told farmed salmon is sustainable but the fish is flavorless and injected with artificial dye. We carry our reusable bags to the supermarkets and fill them with overpackaged commercial products. We treasure our beloved cookooks but Google recipes on the fly. We worry about feeding our unemployed neighbors while we throw away our supersized leftovers. We let Gourmet die then resurrect it . We demand culinary innovation and embrace .
No wonder food professionals are having a hard time giving us what we want! The good news is...American consumers have more choices than ever before. Chain supermarkets partner with local farmers, savvy companies promote vintage lines, independent ice cream mixologists dabble with exotic flavors. Only now can we have Italian style panko, ancient grain sliced packaged bread, and acceptable (finally!) hot house tomatoes. What's in your basket?
- Consumer psychology: Cornell University's is the best place to find out why we eat what we eat (current information)...portion disortion, supermarket strategy, labeling effects.
- Government research: /Food & Drug Administration...latest news on product labeling, health & nutrition issues. /U.S. Dept. of Agriculture...consumer food preferences, foods eaten away from home, dietary trends. Global trends are tracked by the ... food availabiity, genetic modification, & hunger. Some information free; your local public librarian can help you access UN documents.
- Market research: NPD [market research firm] specializes in consumer food trends. Reports can be purchased (these are not available/ obtainable from public libraries. Some information is . (UK) specialises on global trends.
"When Heinz launched StarKist Tuna in a pouch in October 2000, it was billed as the biggest breakthrough in 50 years in a segment that has been struggling with an all-time low in tuna prices. Other marketers soon followed: ConAgra Foods' Bumble Bee bowed pouched tunas and Chicken-of-the-Sea launched Tuna Salad Kits. But never has anyone attempted so profound a reinvention as the one introduced in supermarkets nationwide in August by Pillsbury Co., of Minneapolis: the rectangular bagel. Pillsbury is calling the thing the Toaster Bagel Shoppe, although it certainly isn't a shoppe and, in fact, may not even qualify as a bagel. It is a frozen piece of dough, smooth on the outside, with cream cheese and jelly stuffed inside. Kellogg Co.'s latest attempt to transform existing brands into portable breakfasts is a line of filled Eggo waffles dubbed Waf-Fulls. The three-variety line, which uses strawberry, maple and applecinnamon fillings, will launch in September backed by a million marketing effort beginning in November. General Mills this fall launches two new products that tap into health and convenience trends: a nutritious cereal targeted to women and a new brand of cereal bars. Harmony, a vanilla almond oat cereal fortified with calcium, antioxidants, soy protein, folic acid and iron, begins shipping to retailers ...At the same time, General Mills will launch a line of Milk 'n Cereal bars that uses milk as a key ingredient in bars made with three of its top cereal brands-Honey Nut Cheerios, Cinnamon Toast Crunch and Chex-to offer a bowl of cereal in a more portable form. Cookies don't crumble at biscuit dynamo Nabisco Foods--they just come in different sizes. Bite-size items have proliferated in the food industry, and a mini-version of its Oreo should hit retail shelves in July and August, sources indicate. Kraft Foods is infiltrating the growing snack bar category for the first time with a new line of Jell-O branded bars called Dessert Delights...The Jell-O Dessert Delights, cakelike crusts topped with a choice of cheesecake, lemon or chocolate fudge pudding fillings... Breakaway Foods plans a summer release for its "Push n'Eat" line known as IncrEdibles. The Columbus, Ohio, company is packaging three kinds of frozen macaroni and cheese and three flavors of scrambled eggs in microwaveable cylinders similar to push-up ice cream. To eat: Insert a plastic stick into the bottom of the cylinder and thrust up. "No forks, no spoons, no plates, no mess!" is the company slogan. Yes, Turkey Spam has surfaced in test markets in the Southeast, making it the fourth line-extension of an American luncheon meat all too familiar to GIs, who carried it on D-Day.
The suburban Glen Ellyn entrepreneur has patented a product called PJ Squares that are thin slices of peanut butter and jelly wrapped individually, much like American cheese. No sticky fingers plus there's no peanut butter in the jelly jar or vice versa. The idea isn't as far-fetched as it sounds. Some of the nation's largest grocers, such as Wal-Mart and Kroger, started stocking PJ Squares in some Midwestern cities in April. It's now available in about 2,000 stores in 15 states, including Jewel and Dominick's in Illinois. A package of 10 with either grape or strawberry jelly sells for .99. Extending the StarKist Tuna in a pouch concept to time-- squeezed consumers, Heinz this week is rolling out Lunch To-Go portable salad kits to be backed with TV tags, consumer promotions and sampling. Unilever's Knorr will attempt to cash in on baby boomers' yen for healthy foods with Knorr Naturals, a line of healthy and hearty soup mixes backed by heavy sampling, rebates...With a 15-minute cooking time, the vitamin-enriched line has no artificial preservatives, colors or sweeteners. Four SKUs include chunky potato with roasted onion, roasted vegetable with long grain rice, homestyle chicken noodle and potato vegetable. Frst came Traditional Red EZ Squirt. Then Blastin' Green. Now comes Funky Purple. That's Heinz's new "mystery" EZ Squirt color set to roll out next month amid much pr fanfare,TV tags and promotions with the upcoming How the Grinch Stole Christmas video release and Web site. Targeting parents looking for a convenient, healthy lunch box filler, Tree Top next month will bow Fruit Rocketz, the first shelf-stable apple sauce that's packaged in a tube. Though Nabisco had previously tinkered with its famous cookie, including a short-lived mint version, Kraft says its new all-chocolate indulgence represents the first-ever "permanent flavor change" for Oreo, the nation's biggest-selling cookie product. Unilever Bestfoods will spend million in consumer marketing for the launch this spring of a line of microwaveable spaghetti meals dubbed Ragu Express that it hopes will boost the pasta sauce category out of the doldrums. Nabisco Biscuit Co. is gearing up for a Ritz blitz. In an effort to extend the leading cracker brand beyond its current 46o million in sales, Nabisco is readying a variety of new product introductions, the first among them a new line of Mini Ritz supported with an estimated sio million in advertising beginning in January .
General Mills will marry its Progresso and Betty Crocker brands when it rolls out Complete Meals this month,the first shelf-stable complete dinner kit under the Betty Crocker brand, to be touted in a national multi-media effort. ConAgra's Orville Redenbacher's will roll out the first mini-size popcorns for its microwaveable Movie Theater Butter and Smart Pop Butter lines and a regular size low-fat version of microwaveable Smart Pop Kettle Korn to be touted in a national TV and print push. Portion control and portability are the hallmarks of the mini bags. Unilever Bestfoods is rolling out a variety of Lipton Side Dishes it will support with a million national print campaign later this month that will position the line as mother's little helper...Bestfoods is shoring up the shelf-stable side dish franchise with three new sub-brands: Risotto (two SKUs) and Mashed Potatoes & Gravy (two SKUs). Kellogg will start to ship Cinnamon Marshmallow ScoobyDoo cereal later this month, As part of its push to roll out about 80 new products in 2002, General Mills this summer will launch the first yogurt-flavored granola bars from Nature Valley With stagnant cereal aisle sales forcing marketers to get creative, Kellogg next month will extend its PopTarts brand with a new Snak-Stix version, backed by a national integrated marketing push as well as a packaging overhaul. Pop-Tarts Snak-Stix are frosted Pop-Tarts in candy bar-like form with cookies & creme, caramel chocolate or double chocolate fillings. General Mills will turn its Yoplait yogurt into a meal with Nouriche, a nonfat yogurt smoothie fortified with 20 vitamins and minerals, set to launch in Western and Southwestern test markets this summer. Take a swig of White Cranberry Juice Drink from Ocean Spray (.29 for a 64-ounce bottle). Made from white cranberries, the beverage is less tart than its rosy relative, yet contains the same number of calories (120 per 8 ounces) and is equally rich in vitamin C.
McDonald's introduces a line of three Premium Salads with a choice of warm grilled or crispy chicken, including the California Cobb, with premium mixed greens, grape tomatoes, shaved carrots, crumbled blue cheese, hickory-smoked bacon, chopped egg and Newman's Own California Cobb Dressing. Also available is a Caesar Salad, with mixed greens, grape tomatoes, shaved carrots, grated Parmesan cheese, savory garlic croutons and Newman's Own Creamy Caesar Dressing. Rounding out the trio is a Bacon Ranch Salad, made with mixed greens, grape tomatoes, shaved carrots, Monterey Jack and Cheddar cheeses, hickory-smoked bacon and Newman's Own Ranch Dressing. Also, Newman's Own Light Balsalmic Vinaigrette Dressing is another option. KELLOGG CO.'S SPECIAL K CEREAL touts one of the most remarkable turnarounds of a mature brand in recent history.The cereal was going stale in the U.S. in 2001. Sales of the brand introduced in 1955 were slumping, and its Special K Plus line extension had just bombed. It took freeze-dried strawberries to heat things up. Added to the cereal to create Special K Red Berries, Kellogg experienced its most successful new-product launch in more than a decade. NESTLE USA will put million in marketing behind the launch of its Toll House Ultimates refrigerated cookie dough in an effort to reach an upscale adult target and continue double-digit growth in the category. The higher-priced Ultimates, including White Macadamia Nut and Peanut Butter Cup Chocolate Chip varieties, feature fewer, bigger cookies per package. They use premium ingredients to appeal to adults as a "special treat" rather than as something they would make for kids, a Nestle spokeswoman said. Parmalat will introduce to the U.S. next month one of its hottest European cookie brands with a revamp it hopes will become a profit ringer for the privately owned Italian company. Sold under the name Parmalat Bed & Breakfast cookies in Europe, the premium line will be folded under the Archway brand, the No. 3 cookie maker behind Kraft's Nabisco and Kellogg's Keebler. Renamed Bed & Breakfast Crispy Classics, the cookie line has been expanded with new flavors, including chunky chocolate chip, white chocolate macadamia and fruit-center SKUs to fill the demand for textured cookies. Kellogg has been hawking Tony's Cinnamon Krunchers, its new kids cereal launching next month, to the trade as a "winning combination" that will reap great profits for retailers. Kraft hopes to squeeze out its long list of rivals on the breakfast table with the first significant launch behind its Philadelphia Cream Cheese franchise in two years, Philadelphia To-Go Bagel & Cream Cheese, an all-in-one breakfast convenience food. KRAFT FOODS' will launch a nutritious line of Lunchables in January , backed by a major media push, in a bid to boost the faltering oo million-plus brand, which has been vilified by the press as one of the culprits in the childhood-obesity epidemic. The Oscar Mayer Lunchables franchise, suffering from flat to dedining sales compared with the double-digit gains of early last year, will be buoyed by the introduction of four varieties dubbed Fun Fuel that are developed in conjunction with the USDA Food Pyramid Guide.
Sara Lee will launch three extra-fiber, fortified breads under its EarthGrains brand: whole wheat, whole wheat with honey, and multigrain. Each offers 35% of current fiber guidelines with two slices Hershey's Foods is tantalizing low-carb enthusiasts who have a sweet tooth with Hershey's 1 g Sugar Carb bars. Pop Rocks will partner with Mott's to bring its "Entertainment for the mouth" experience to apple sauce with the launch this month of Magic Mix-ins, a kid-targeted product that changes color with flavor-popping vitamin C crystals. Mr. Friedmann pointed to a variety of new products and ad initiatives Kraft is launching, especially in the health and wellness arena, among them a new Carb Well sub-brand of no-carb Kraft salad dressings and low-carb BBQ sauce; a 10-calorie version of its kid-targeted Kool-Aid pouches dubbed Kool-Aid Jammers 10; and Crystal Light Sunrise, a powdered breakfast drink that has 100% daily requirement of vitamin C and is a good source of calcium. THE BILLION-DOLLAR rice category heats up this month with the simultaneous launch of two ready-to-serve lines from Uncle Ben's and Zatarain's that are ready in less than 90 seconds...Ready Rice, which includes five varieties of steam-in-pouch rice side dishes with flavors such as Roasted Chicken and Long Grain & Wild, is "about delivering ultra-convenience for the consumer at a time when she is as time-stressed as she's ever been," said Bryan Crowley, senior brand manager for Uncle Ben's...Ads for Flavorful began in November. TV ads for Ready Rice, from Omnicom Group's TBWA/Chiat/Day, Playa del Rey, Calif., will begin in spring. Zatarain's New Orleans Style Rice will launch its standup pouches of ready-to-serve flavored rice mixes with a major TV blitz beginning in February from Peter A. Mayer Advertising, New Orleans. AT A TIME WHEN consumers typically begin the new year with resolutions for a healthier lifestyle, Kellogg will launch a potassium-rich Corn Flakes with Real Bananas and a heart-healthy Smart Start Soy this month with a combined million marketing program.
Die-hard fans of reality television can now try some of those grotesque stunts at home. Brand New Products, a company based in Chicago, has introduced a line of edibles based on Fear Factor. "What appealed to us was the gross-out factor and the longevity of the Fear Factor brand," says Steven Faso, the company's founder. Offerings include a slimy sour-candy octopus marinating in a plastic pouch, a bacon-flavored Gross-Out Gummy Pig-Out Platter, and green gummy frogs legs with white candy bones-plus a tub of red candy "blood" for dipping. But the company's pride and joy is a carton of crunchy larvae, made with real baby worms from California that have been freezedried and coated with flavors like cheddar cheese and Mexican spice. Such novelty or "extreme" confections are the fastest- growing segment of the billion candy market in the U.S., according to a recent report. And the Jelly Belly Candy Company has faithfully created the Bertie Bolt's Every Flavor Beans enjoyed by Harry Potter (the series is published by Scholastic Inc.). Flavors include rotten egg, bacon, earwax, dirt, and soap. Yum! Today, the No. 2 fast-food chain [Burger King] launches its Enormous Omelet Sandwich. How enormous? For those counting: one sausage patty, two eggs, two American cheese slices and three strips of bacon. On a bun. or those still counting, that's four layers of breakfast with 730 calories oozing 47 grams of fat. For about .99, depending on the market. More Americans are eager to add fish oil to their diets because of its health benefits -- but they don't particularly want to eat fish, judging from consumption rates that are low relative to meat and chicken. So food manufacturers are introducing products enriched with fish oil, which contains the omega-3 fatty acids that protect against heart attack and stroke. Last month, Wegmans, a Northeastern grocery chain with 68 stores, introduced the first omega-3 bread made with fish oil. Another product, Coromega, is a creamy, orange-flavored emulsion that can be mixed into yogurt or smoothies. Manufacturers say a variety of technologies keep the products from tasting fishy -- which is a relief when you're breakfasting on fish-oil toast slathered with fish-oil spread.
McDonald's Corp. on Wednesday said it will start selling a snack- size chicken wrap in late July to spur U.S. sales.The .29 Chicken Snack Wrap will be McDonald's newest product, said North America President Ralph Alvarez. The Oak Brook-based company has added an Asian chicken salad, a spicy chicken sandwich and a stronger coffee blend since January after growth slowed in 2005. Last fall, Union Foods Newcorp. of Irvine, Calif., launched several ramen-noodle products, including Gourmet Snack Noodles Soup and Mamma Mia microwaveable noodles, that are low in sodium, have no monosodium glutamate and no trans fats. The company also is pushing new noodle lines infused with vegetables, as well as ones with spices and sauces that appeal to different ethnic tastes.
Responding to consumer demand for convenient, on-the-go meals, Chicken of the Sea International has launched two new products, Peel & Eat Tuna and Salmon Cups; and Lunch Solutions. Peel & Eat Cups contain 2.8 oz. of either wild-caught tuna or salmon. Lunch Solutions, also with tuna or salmon, are packed with crackers. Both products are available in four flavor varieties, including Honey BBQ Salmon and Teriyaki Tuna. For more information, call (877) THE-MERMAID or visit www.chickenofthesea.com. Chicken of the Sea Kraft's Fresh Creations salads, which include lettuce along with Oscar Mayer meat, Planters nuts and Kraft cheese and salad dressing, are being tested in Boston and Denver, where ads tout them as alternatives to restaurant salads. Kraft also has been rolling out new chicken-salad kits, without lettuce, under its South Beach Diet brand in stores nationwide this month...For Sara Lee, the new salads are the first step in its effort to take its Hillshire Farm brand beyond the sausage links and lunch meat for which it is known. Sara Lee plans to expand the brand into even more product categories in coming months, although it won't specify yet what those are. "As convenient and quick as a hot link is to put in a bun for dinner, we have to look at what else we can offer," says Kim Feil, chief marketing officer of Sara Lee's food-and-beverage unit. It's been a decade since Kraft's last big idea--the DiGiorno Rising Crust Pizza. And the Northfield-based food giant says it is ready to unveil its next blockbuster product--DiGiorno Ultimate.
ConAgra Foods, Inc. announced that its Healthy Choice Cafe Steamers product was named "best selling new food or beverage product through mid-year 2008" by Information Resources, Inc. (IRI), the world's leading provider of consumer, shopper, and retail market intelligence and insights.
According to the annual New Product Pacesetters report from Information Resources Inc., the top new food product of 2008, the G2 sports drink from PepsiCo, generated sales of 9.1 million.
New products and food trends are reported trade publications: & . 
. Most restaurants publish menus on the Web. Google the restaurant you want for current prices & selections.
 Woman's Day, August 1, 2000: Kellogg's Rice Krispies Treats (new Double Chocolate Chunk, individually wrapped snacks), Beef (America's Beef Producers "It's what's for dinner"), Post Alpha Bits breakfast cereal, Dannon Danimals (new, drinkable yogurt, Strawberry Explosion, Blueberry, Tropical Tide, Raspberry, Cherry, market for children), Trident Sugarless Gum For Kids (new, Berry Bubble Gum), Kraft 2% Milk Singles (cheese, added calcium), Life Savers Creme Savers hard candies (orange & creme, strawberry & creme, bag & rolls), Crystal Light Tea (mix, peach flavor), Carefree Spearmint sugarless bum (also peppermint & alpine mint, "whitens teeth"), Jell-O (sugar free, box & individual plastic cup portions), Dannon Natural Spring Water (personal size plastic bottle), Kool-Aid (22 flavors,"caffeine free," "good source of vitamin C"), French's mustard (yellow squeeze bottle; Funny Food Face contest), Metamucil fiber laxative/dietary fiber supplement, Nabisco cafe Cremes (cookies, vanilla, vanilla fudge & cappuccino flavors), Dean's Dips for One (french onion dip, individual packs for lunch boxes), Tyson chicken, Wish Bone Roasted Garlic Vinaigrette salad dressing (also sun-dried tomato, balsamic, berry, olive oil, red wine, white wine), Morningstar Farms Spice Black Bean burger (vegetarian patty), Wish Bone Oriental Marinade, Glad Stand & Zip (new, plastic bags with zipper closure), Near East Couscous (box, original plain), Jell-O No Bake Cheesecake and Cookies & Creme,McDonald's Happy Meal with Fingerboard toy (mini skateboard, .99).
Woman's Day, May 15, 2001: Betty Crocker Chocolate Chunk Brownie Mix, Kool-Aid Magic Twists (powdered beverage packets, Grape Illusion & Changin' Cherry--gold drink mix turns into a red drink, tastes like purple juice grape & green drink mix turns into a blue drink, tastes like red juicy cherry), Nestle Nesquick Chocolate powder mix (yellow canister, add milk), Dannon Danimals (drinkable yogurt, cherry cool flavor), Quaker Crispy Minis (new, snack foods, BBQ, Cheddar Cheese & Creamy ranch flavors), Citrucel 100% Soluble Fiber (caplets, mix with water), Kraft Ranch with Oscar Meyer salad dressing (new, recipe for Democrat/Republican Salad), Viactiv (soft calcium chews, milk chocolate), Twinlag Metabolift ("high protein, low carb diet kit," tablets & drink supplements), Jell-O Pudding (new, personal-size plastic tub), Oscar Meyer Lunchables Fun Snacks (new, Fudge Brownie, S'mores, Chocolate Chip Cookie, Marshmallow Crispy Square & Chocolate Cookies--with frosting mix & sprinkles for assembly), Hidden Valley Ranch salad dressing (bottle), Kraft Deluxe Original Macaroni & Cheese Dinner (box), Land O Lakes Butter (sticks), Florida's natural Orange Juice (cardboard carton), McCormick Bag 'n Season coating mix (Chicken Italian Herb, Chicken Oriental, Chicken Southwest Style & Pork Tenderloin Herb Roasted), Wish Bone Restaurant Style House Italian (new, bottle), Near East Rice Pilaf and Couscous (boxes, recipe for Santa Fe Chicken Pilaf), Baker's Chocolate Chunks (bag), Zatarain's New Orleans Style Red Bean and Rice, Jambalaya Mix & new Chicken Creole Rice Mix), Borden Singles American cheese (Original, Big, 2 % Milk).
Family Circle, June 15, 2004: Kraft Velveeta Shells & Cheese (box, recipes for Bacon & Tomato Shells, Cheeseburger Mac & Deep-Dish Casserole), POPables (choclate coated candy balls, packets, Snickers, 3 Muskateers, Milky Way & Snickers Butter Crunch flavors), Lipton Fiesta Sides (new, packet, Smoked Chipotle Rice, also Taco Rice, Nacho pasta, Jalapeno Jack Pasta, Mexican Rice and Spansh Rice), Hershey's Kisses with Caramel filling (new), Quaker Chewy Granola Bars (choclate chunk), Cabot Vermont Cheddar Cheeses (Hunter's Seriously Sharp, Extra Sharp, 50% Light), Hormel Real Bacon Bits (glass jar), Hormel Premium Chunk Breast of Chicken (can) recipe for No-Bae Chicken Bacon Pizza, Bacardi Margarita, Daiquiri & Pina Colada mixes (bottles & frozen concentrate, "just add Bacardi rum"), Minute Maide juice boxes & foil coolers (Apple Juice, Pink Lemonade), Perrier bottled water, Mrs. Dash Grilling Blends (seasoning blend: mesquite, steak & chicken varieties; recipe for Grilled Mesquite Burgers & Sizzling Savory Burgers), Borden Cheeses (American singles, shredded Four Cheese Mexican in resealable plastic pouch), Ball Park Franks (beef, Cajun style, original), French's mustards (squeeze bottles, honey dijon, honey, sweet & zesty, classic yellow, brown), French's GourMao mayonnaise (squeeze bottle, horseradish, dijon, chipotle chili), French's Potato Sticks, Nabisco Triscuit crackers, Oscar Meyer Lunchables, Fun Fuel (chicken wraps & yogurt jammers), Quaker Life breakfast cereal (new honey graham flavor), Campbell's V8 Splash (new, mango peach & tropical colada smoothie), Murray sugar-free cookies (new, nut fudge dipped grahams), Starbuck's frozen desserts (new, Frappuccino bars--caffe vanilla flavor) & low fat latte (pint carton), Northland juice (bottle, cranberry-raspberry flavor), Tropicana Pure Premium Essentials (carton, orange juice), Kraft Miracle Whip (jar), Dannon Carb Control Yogurt (new, small containers, vanilla, peach and berry flavors), Shady Brook turkey (ground turkey, boneless breast cutlets, turkey sausage; recipe for Fresh Lemon Pepper Turkey), Food Network TV ads, Post Honeycomb breakfast cereal, Bush's Original Baked Beans (can & microwavable container), Smucker's Toppings (for ice cream, butterscotch, hot fudge, Milky Way, chocolate fudge, caramel, strawberry, Magic Shell, new chocolate mocha), Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Dinner (box), Oscar Meyer Ready to Serve Bacon (fully cooked), Post Selects breakfast cereal (Cranberry Almond Crunch, Maple Pecan Crunch, Blueberry Morning, Great Grains, Banana Nut Crunch), Beef ("It's What's For Dinner").
Woman's Day, September 1, 2005: Organic Ragu Garden Veggie sauce (jar), Tostitos 100% White Corn Restaurant Style tortilla chips (bag, with Tostito's Salsa), Swiss Colony (Petits Fours, Gourmet Brownies, Truffle Assortnemnt, Sugar Free Brownies, Chocolate Truffles, Macadamia Nut Chocolates), Organic Path Toaster Pastries (apple cinnamon, blueberry, strawberry), Jell-O Sugar Free Pudding Cups (chocolate), Lifesavers Gummies Sours (soft candy, bag, "fruit with a sting"), Post Whole Grain Selects breakfast cereal (maple pecan crunch, great grains, banana nut crunch, cranberry almond crunch, blueverry morning), Kool-Aid Jammers (juice pouches, kiwi strawberry, tropical punch, grape), Nabisco Kid Sense Fun Packs (new, snack crackers, Teddy Grahams Cubs, Cheese Nips, Ritz Bits), Post Alpha Bits breakfast cereal, Oscar Meyer Ready to Serve Bacon, Pork Sausage Patties (new) & Canadia Style Bacon (new)--fully cooked, Gren Giant Garden Vegetable Medley (frozen, bag, new; recipe for Slwo Cooker Beef Madras), Krusteaz lemon Bars (mix, recipe for Lemon-Raspberry Meringue Tart), Edy's Slow Churned Ric & Creamy ice cream (pint, light, vanilla), Snyder's of Hanover Peanut Butter Pretzel Sandwiches (new, bag, also cheddar cheese flavor), Smucker's Sqeeze Fruit Spreads (strawberry, grape, new reduced sugar strawberry, squeese from the top), Bush's Boston Recipe Baked Beans (new, can), Post Raisin Bran Cereal Bars (new, cinnamon & cranberry flavors).
Good Housekeeping, December 2006: Dark Chocolate M&Ms (purple bag), Rachel Ray's Holiday Recipes featuring Nabiscp Ritz (recipe for Smoked Salmon Spread & Creany Crimin Spread), Wheat Thins ("big," size, recipe for Prosciutto and Melon Salsa), Triscuit (recipe for Refried Red Beans with Tomato and Poblano), Santa Fe Chunky Chunky Salsa, Black Bean Dip, Salsa Con Queso (new, jars), Hellmann's & Best Foods Canola Real Mayonnaise (new, jars), McCormick Grinder Spices (new, Italian Herb Blend, Peppercorn), Grandma's Molases, Success Natural Whole Grain Brown Rice (new), Diet Ocean Spray (juice) , Quaker Oatmeal Weight Control breakfast cereal (new flavor: maple & brown sugar), Nabisco Fig Newtons, Promise Buttery Spread (plastic tub), Campbell's Chicken with Rice Soup, Swanson Chicken Broth (carton, "99% fat free"; recipe for Swanson Moist & Savory Stuffing), Hormel Chili (can), McCormick Turkey Gravy (packet), Turkish Bay Leaves (glass bottle), Ground Nutmeg (plastic jar), Campbell's Cream of Mushroom Soup (can, original & 25% less sodium, recope for Campbell's Green Bean Casserole), Grandma's Molasses (jar, original, "Better-for-you natural sweetener"), Crisco Flour Spray (aerosol can, with Pillsbury Flour), Pepperidge Farm Puff Pastry Sheets (frozen,r ecipes for Mediterranean Palmiers, Fanciful Fruit Centerpiece), Pepperidge Farm Heb Seasoned Stuffing (bag, recipe for Savor Herb abd Sausage Stuffing with Tangy Granny Smith Apples), Pepperidge Farm Distinctive Entertaining Cookies (box assortment, photo of contents), Millsone Ground Roast Coffee (gold bags, flavored, 12 bags in ad, French Roast only readable flavor), Beakstone's Sour Cream (recpe for Ultimate 7-Layer Dip), King Arthur White hole Wheat Flour (bag), Mazola Pure Cooking Spray, Keebler Ready Crust (graham cracker pie crust in tin; recipes for Raspberry Custard Pie, Mini Orange Ricotta Pies & Baked Classic Cheesecake) ), Rice a Roni Savory Whole Grains Roasted Garlic Italiano (new, box), Santa Fe Balck Bean and Corn Salsa, Salsa Con Queso, Chunky, Chunky Salsa), Reddi Wip (aerosol whipped cream product), Flavia flavored beverages, individual packets: cappuccino, green tea, gourmet coffee, caramel cappuccino, milky way latte, real leaf tea, mochaccino, hot chocolate, chai latte, English breakfast iced tea (with special Flavia Fusion machine).
Family Circle, February 2007: Caribou Coffee granola bars (news, chocolate mocha flavor), Weight Watchers muffins & cakes (boxed, berries & creme muffins, blueberry muffins, carrot cake, chocolate cake, lemon cake, raspberry muffins, dark chocolate muffins), Smart Ones (frozen entree, three cheeze ziti marinara), Quaker Oatmeal Crunch breakfast cereal (maple & brown sugar), PediaSure (balanced nutrition drink for children), Kellogg's Yogos (yogurt-covered fruit flavored snack, individual packs, Island Explosion, Strawberry Slam, Crazy Verries), Pepperidge Farm Whole Grain sliced bread, Pepperidge Farm Chocolate Delights cookies (Marbella, Rialto, Seville), Campbell's Soups (cans, Vegetarian Vegetable, Chicken with Rice, Vegetable Beef, Minestrone, Chickne Noodle), Taster's Choice instant coffee, Kellogg's Frosted Mini Wheats (bite sized, original & strawberry delights), Tropicana Orange Juice, Campbell's Select Soups Healthy Request (cans, Homestyle Chicken Noodle, Italian-Style Wedding, Tomato, Chicken Noodle), Jell-O sugar free pudding cups (Dulce de Leche), V8 juice (bottle), Diet Ocean Spray juices (cranberry, orange citrus), T.G.I. Firday's Buffalo Wings & Spinach Cheese Artichoke Dip (frozen), French's Original French Fried Onions (recipe for Crunchy Onion Chicken), Ball Park Bun Sized Franks (fat free), Kozy Shack puddings (no sugar, chocolate, vanilla, rice), Weight Watchers yogurts (berries 'n cream), Asian Style Sensations (frozen, egg folls, wontons), International Delight coffee creamers (pourable, caramel hazelnut swirl & white chocolate macadamia nut), Zatarain's New Orleans Style Jambala Mix (box), Bertoli Organic Tomato Sauce (jar: olive oil, basil & garlic), Smucker's Sugar Free Preserves (with Splenda; apricot, strawberry & red raspberry), Bush's Homestyle Chili (glass jar), Kraft 2% Milk Sharp Cheese (resealable pouch), McCormick Slow Cookers (seasoning mixes; savory pot roast & hearty beef stew), Fleschmann's RapidRise Highly Active Yeast (packet, recipe for Fleishmann's Easy Taco Bake), Barilla Sphaghetti, Mrs. Dash (spice mixes; original, ectra spicy, garlic & herb, Italian medley, lemon pepper, onion & herb, mesquite, southwest chipotle, steak, tomato basil garlic, table blend), Nestle Coffee-Mate (bottle, French vanilla), Morningstar Veggie Bits (frozen, spinach artichoke), Lucky Leaf (canned pie filling, cherry, recipe for Fluffy Cherry Lemon Pie), Hormel Beef Roast au Jus (heat & serve), McCormich Mild Taco and Cheesy Taco seasoning mixes), Kraft Velveeta Shells & Cheese (box), Reynolds Slow Cooker Liners (plastic), Quaker Oats Oatmeal (recipe for Chipper Skillet Cookies), French's Original French Fried Onions (recipe for French's Crunchy Onion Chicken), California Almonds (recipe for Dried Tomato Almond Tapenade), Pria Power Bar Grain Essentials (70% organic ingredients, chocolate almond bliss flavor).
Family Circle, June 2009: Crystal Light Iced Tea (mix), Milk ("Got milk?"), Subway sandwiches, apples & lowfat milk ("for kids"), Blue Bunny Premium Ice Cream (Bunny Tracks), Simply Orange Juice (bottle), Nabisco Chips Ahoy Chewy cookies, CapriSun juice packets, Swiss Premium Sweetend Iced Tea, Green Tea, Sweet Tea, Oscar Meyer Deli Fresh Brown Sugar Ham (shaved), Domino Sugar (sack), Oscar Meyer Lunchables (new variety: Turkey Cheddar), Pork ("The Other White Meat," recipe for Pina Colada Pork Chops), Kellogg's Pop Tarts, Capri Sun Juice Packets (Rorin'Waters), French's French Fried Onions (original; recipe for French's Crunchy Onion Chicken), Quaker Tortilla Zesty Guacamole Chips (new), Light Silk Soymilk (carton, vanilla), Fisher Culinary Touch (packets, salad toppings; almond cranberry blend, toasted slivered almonds, walnut raisin blend), Shedd's Spread Country Cook Calcium plus Vitamin D (plastic tub; recipe for Baked Chicken Fingers), Smartfood Popcorn Clusters, Blue Diamond Breeze Rich & Creamy Almond milk, Quaker Mini Delights Caramel Drizzle snacks, Pepperidge Farm Milano cooikes, Jell-O Sugar-Free Pudding Snacks, Blue Diamond Almonds (whole, natural), Sonic (fast food chain) Grilled Chicken Sandwiches, Grilled Chicken Wraps. Grilled Chicken Salad), Snyder's of Hanover Mini Pretzels (bag), Oscar Meyer Jumbo Beef Franks, Simply Lemonade ("shake well, not from concentrate," plastic bottles), Cook's HAM (boneless, plastic wrapped), Gorton's Crispy Battered Fish Fillets (frozen; recipe for Fish Tacos), Heinz Ketchup (& Cocktail Sauce, 57 Sauce, Chili Sauce), Kozy Shack No Sugar Added Rice Pudding (individual servings), Dannon All Natural Plain Yogurt (recipe for Peach. Prosciutto Salad with Yogurt, Feta Cheese and Herbs), McCormick seasoning packets (Original Taco, Brown Gravy, Mild Taco, Beef Stew, Chicken Gravy, Original Chili), Pringles BakeD Wheat Stix ( new, cheese flavor), Heinz Distilled White Vinegar (glass bottle), Nature's Pride Whole Wheat Bread (sliced), Murray Sugar Free Cookies, Oscar Meyer Bacon.
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27 February 2015