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What is chemistry?

hemistry is the study of matter and the interactions among different types of matter.  Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.  The first step in learning more about chemistry is to as much as you  can on your areas of interest.  The book is an example of a "very low cost - almost free" guide to get you started.  However, you can study chemistry at this web site totally free. You do not have to purchase anything. Use the menu chart above and start by studying , and . Then take a look at and follow it as an outline for studying the other subjects in the top menu table above. Go through all the topics in the menu table above, one at a time. Above all make it fun and interesting for yourself.  Take your time, don't rush.

Chemistry has four major areas of interest and many sub-specialties.

1.  Organic Chemistry - The study of the element carbon and its compounds including living matter.

2.  Inorganic chemistry - The study of all other elements of non-living matter.

3.  Analytical chemistry - The study of " What is it?" or qualitative chemistry and "How much is there?"  which is quantitative chemistry.  Analytical chemistry is the analysis of compounds. 

4.  Physical Chemistry - The quantitative aspects of the physical properties of substances and their relationship to chemical structure and composition.

- - - - A few sub-specialties in chemistry are:

Biochemistry - The study of biologically active substances.

Polymer chemistry - The chemistry of long chained molecules.
Solid state chemistry -
The behavior of solids.

Organometallic chemistry - The chemistry of compounds in which a metal is bonded in an organic compound.

o Liquid Crystal Chemistry

o Medicinal Chemistry

o Geochemistry

o Polymer Chemistry

o Photochemistry

o Materials Chemistry

o Electrochemistry

o Catalysis

o Physical Chemistry

o Spectroscopy

o Industrial and Applied Chemistry

o Separation Science and Chromatography

o Surface and Colloid Science

o Interfacial Chemistry

o Fuels And Petrochemicals

o Natural Product Chemistry

And so forth . . . . .

Start by getting familiar with the ATOM:

 

Then get familiar with may different types of atoms and the periodic chart of atoms:

 

More on groups of atoms:

 

CHEMISTRY 

Free online chemistry tutorials 

   by Chem4Kids.com

CHEM4KIDS - Chemistry Research destination

by University of Arizona

Review the basics of chemistry you'll need to know to study biology.

by University of Arizona

Learn about structures and properties of sugars, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides, as well as macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides.

by University of Arizona

Learn about the solvent properties of water, pH, pKa and buffering capacity.

by University of Arizona

Learn how metabolic acidosis or alkalosis can arise and how these conditions shift the bicarbonate equilibrium. The body's compensatory mechanisms and treatment options are also discussed.

by University of Arizona

Learn which biological reactions require either B12 or folate (or both); what the consequences of a deficiency in either vitamin are, and the important step in which B12 and folate metabolism overlap.

  by University of Arizona

Familiarize yourself with some key principles about enzymes, catalysis, and energy that are central to a subsequent study of metabolic pathways.

by University of Arizona

Develop a basic understanding of some of the fundamental concepts of metabolism.

by University of Arizona

Learn about the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by insulin, glucagon and epinephrine, mainly in liver and muscle.

by University of Arizona

Study the conversion of light energy into different forms of chemical energy during photosynthesis.

by University of Arizona

Review the location and overall reactions of carbohydrate biosynthesis during photosynthesis, and understand the metabolic differences between C3 and C4 plants.

by Dr. Roger Nix

Structure of Metallic Surfaces,  Adsorption of Molecules on Surfaces, The Langmuir Isotherm, UHV & Effects of Gas Pressure, Surface Analytical Techniques, Overlayer Structures & Surface Diffraction, Surface Imaging & Depth Profiling

by EncycloZine

Chemistry is the branch of science concerned with the properties, structure, and composition of substances and their reactions with one another. There are two main divisions, organic and inorganic.

COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF FREE CHEMISTRY VIDEOS

Organic Chemistry

 

 

 

General Chemistry Online -

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Chemistry is the study of the building blocks of nature, how they combine and their combinations which form the , , and that make up most forms of matter. For the many different and , see:

The

, including , which studies the basic principles that are applied in and .

, which underlies and chemistry and is the study of -containing .

, which includes , and .

, the basis of .

To represent structures easily, you can use .

Periodic Chart of the Elements with correlation to their health aspects - , and its health effectsand environmental effects,  In four languages

Periodic Tables

- Visit the new visual interpretation of the table of elements at chemsoc, the chemistry societies network

- Western Oregon University

- Oxidation and electrons, reactions, conductivity, and radius information; by David D. Hsu

- Description of the elements' physical, structural, and chemical properties; 1996 Thinkquest Entry

- Receive magnetic resonance information for an element

-Elemental properties, uses, sources, and handling; by the Los Alamos National Laboratory

- Mark Winter's (University of Sheffields) award winning site; elemental background, descriptions, and physical properties

- Choose an element and receive its x-ray properties

Nuclear Terminology























video: VHS  or DVD
video: VHS  or DVD video: VHS or DVD

CONVERSION

CONVERT [PDF] [PDF]

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Chemistry - Animations

Organic Chemistry Tutorials

Acids and Bases
        |      |      |  

Carbocations    

Curved Arrows    

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles        |  

Formal Charge    

Lewis Dot Structures    

Resonance        |      |  

Stereochemistry    

Organic Stereochemistry:

        |      |      |      |
        |      |  

 
IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology
[] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []
[] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

The following WWW links will take you directly to the various web site pages.  Your browser URL address line will tell you the origin of the site.

    http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/chapters.html

For a brief introduction to chemistry click on this;
     http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/tutorials

Next visit the following links that interest you.

   www.chemtutor.com
   www.chemtutor.com
   www.chemtutor.com
    www.chemtutor.com
  www.chemtutor.com
   www.chemtutor.com
   www.chemtutor.com

.  All matter can be classified as being either a pure substance or a mixture.  Matter can exist as either a solid, liquid, or a gas and can change among these three states of matter.  Mixtures can be heterogeneous (made up of two or more physically different parts or states of matter) or homogeneous (consisting of components that cannot be individually detected.)  Homogenous mixtures are usually called solutions.  In a two-component system, the major component is called the solvent and the minor component is called the solute.  Aqueous solutions have water as the solvent.  If the components of a solution can be mixed in any proportion, they are said to be miscible.  A colloid is a mixture in which the particles of the lesser phase are intermediate in size between those present in the homogeneous mixtures and those in heterogeneous mixtures; typically they are on the order of 10 to 10,000 angstroms in diameter.

    
   www.chemtutor.com
    
 
  
  
   
     
      
  
  
  

The Scott Specialty Gases website is a valuable resource for technical and safety chemical information including an online MSDS Library, comprehensive downloadable Design and Safety handbook, chemical innovations, , chemical safety tips, and compliance documentation. 

   
  
  
  
   
    
  
    
   

Dept of Energy Document Dept of Energy Document Dept of Energy Document
[PDF]

[PDF]

Famous scientist quote:
"All men deal with matter in the gross and our bodies are constructed of it.  Mysteries of matter, therefore, have a fascination for thoughtful laymen as well as scientists and technologists.  The atom has long been familiar as the ultimate unit of matter".  Lord Ernest Rutherford (18771 - 1937)

- There are four major parts to learning chemistry basics. - - Elements, Laws and Theories, Combinations of Elements, and Applied Chemistry - learn about them and what the words mean to know the inner mysteries of chemistry.  Learn about each elements physical characteristics and atomic structure by periodic chart of elements and each elements associated physical characteristics.  

At first concentrate on the more common elements of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sodium, potassium, sulfur, and a few metals like copper, zinc, silver, mercury, and lead.   Later you can study the rest of the elements.

Web Elements Online -

Pictorial Periodic Chart

Periodic Chart and other interesting things.

The periodic table,

Chemistry is the study of the building blocks of nature, how they combine and their combinations which form the , , and that make up most forms of matter. For the many different and , see:

To represent structures easily, you can use .

Periodic Chart of the Elements with correlation to their health aspects - , and its health effects and environmental effects,  In four languages

Periodic Tables

  • - Visit the new visual interpretation of the table of elements at chemsoc, the chemistry societies network
  • - Western Oregon University
  • - Oxidation and electrons, reactions, conductivity, and radius information; by David D. Hsu
  • - Description of the elements' physical, structural, and chemical properties; 1996 Thinkquest Entry
  • - Receive magnetic resonance information for an element
  • -Elemental properties, uses, sources, and handling; by the Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • - Mark Winter's (University of Sheffields) award winning site; elemental background, descriptions, and physical properties
  • - Choose an element and receive its x-ray properties

-- Nice Animation Site




-- Fill in the Blank Table
-- Elements Seen in the Comics
-- Basic Table
-- Visual (Graphic Intense)
--Very Nice Table
-- History
-- Elements Put to Poetry

   Learn about laws, theories, facts and various principals of chemistry.  

For example:
The The  
The , 
The   
The  
The and many more.  This will require some memorization but knowing where you can get the information is important.

[PDF]


Introduction of everyday forces and quarks, leptons, boson's, fundamental particles and other issues.
From Cornell University: Professors Sadoff, Hine.  

The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory which describes the strong ... Unsolved problems in physics: Parameters in the Standard Model: What gives ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Model - 53k - -


In a study of magnesium absorption, chemist Joseph Domek measures magnesium content in water with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

COMBINATIONS OF ELEMENTS AND THEIR REACTIONS:  Study chemical reactions by reading This is an example of a chemical reaction and a reversal.sections on stoichiometry in chemistry text books and demonstrating them with laboratory experiments.  (See laboratory cautions below). Combining elements to form new combinations is a very important part of chemistry. (If you don't know the meaning of the words here look them up in the "TERMS" links provided below.  Also look up the words in your dictionary for additional understanding.)  Learn about the concept of a Learn more about chemical reactions

In a simple equation, such as the synthesis of iron(II) sulfide,
iron + sulfur = iron(II) sulfide the equation requires no special balancing:

Fe + S  Ћ   FeS

Our last stage is to put in state symbols, (s, l, g, aq), as appropriate.

Fe(s) + S(s)  Ћ   FeS(s)

On a molar basis, we can say that one mole of iron (56g) reacts with one mole of sulfur (32g) to produce one mole of the compound iron(II) sulfide (88g).

You will need the ability in chemistry to describe formulas for any substance you come across.  For ionic compounds the compound formula may be arrived at odium (Na) has a charge of +1.  Oxygen (O) has a charge of -2.  Carbon (C) has a charge of -4.  When by knowing the number of charges each ion has.  Memorize this table.  For example syou see these elements in a formula; substitute the charge numbers and that will tell you how many atoms of each element are needed to balance the equation.

For example if you combine sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) that is the same as +1 = -1 = 0 so you only need one of each.  When we say one, it could mean one atom or one mole.  So the formula for  a combination of sodium and chlorine is Na+Cl- or often written with out the superscripts as NaCl.   This is sodium chloride or common table salt.  What about aluminum and chlorine?  +3 = -1 = +2  In this case you need two chlorine (whatever) to balance the equation for the compound.  It would end up as Al3+ 3 Cl- which is AlCl3.  Some elements can have various charges like iron.  They are written with roman numerals to indicate the charge; iron(II) Fe2+, 3+, etc.

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Please go to our

DOT STRUCTURE INFORMATION

DOT STRUCTURE:


Lewis Dot Movie: To play the movie press play button > above.


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ACID and BASE Chemistry What are ACIDS? History of Acids and Bases The Acids, Alkalis and Salts Crossword ABOUT Acids and Bases Acids and Alkalis  Acids and Bases AMINO Acids AP Acids Properties and Examples [PDF]

Names of common acids and their salts follow these simple rules:
-ic acids form -ate salts - for example sulfuric acid forms sulfate salts.
-ous acids form -ite salts - for example sulfurous acid forms sulfite salts.
hydro-(stem)-ic acids form - ide salts - for example hydrochloric acid forms chloride salts.

Acids and Bases
        |      |      |  



General Data Properties Metals Lists Alkali Metal

Measurement for Chemistry


[PDF] [PDF] [PDF] [PDF]

Chemistry

[PDF] [PDF] Inorganic Qualitative analysis at

Quiz with answers Gas Law Problem Gas Law Tutorial GAS Law Described Prepare Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Gas Tutorial
Free GAS Handbook -pdf -

The Scott Specialty Gases website is a valuable resource for technical and safety chemical information including an online MSDS Library, comprehensive downloadable Design and Safety handbook, chemical innovations, , chemical safety tips, and compliance documentation. 

   


Slides

Preparing Solutions Solutions/Dilutions/%/Molar
Solutions Solute and Solvents Tutorial








Making Solutions

Reactions Graphics Key Points Common types of reactions Predicting reactions Chemical Reactions (LSU)
(Widener U)
(ChemCentral)
(Georgetown College)
(Carnegie Mellon)
(Wilton High School) (Wilton High School) (Wilton High School) (Wilton High School) (DBHS)
(John Brodemus)
(IrYdium Project)
(Erik)
(Floyd College) (Smith)
(CSU-DH)
(GSU)





























Software Temperature Chemical Thermodynamics & Spontaneity Online Interactive QUIZ Thermochemistry Links

     (Specific heat immediately follows this section.)













scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/Heat.html -
  
  
   
    
  
    
   

Specific Heat


[PDF]

Converters

Java Converter


Bonding Chemical Bonds AP Bonding GCSE, dot-school: Bonding Understanding Bonding
How does SuperGlue Work? 
[PDF]

Types Of Bonds

[PDF]

Electrochemistry Tutorial
Dictionary Experiments Electro Chemical Reactions Voltaic Cells Electrochemistry

Intoduction Living Textbook Nuclear Chemistry



Structure

Nuclear Terminology

Basic Chemistry
Link:

BASIC CHEMISTRY

is basic to Chemistry. The theory states that all matter is composed of a set of very small units called atoms. One of the very first laws to be discovered leading to the establishment of Chemistry as a science is the . The law states there is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary . (Modern Physics now teaches that atoms and can be neither created nor destroyed.) On a superficial level this means that if we start off with 10,001 atoms and proceed with many chemical reactions, we will be left with 10,001 atoms. Even if we started off with something green and gooey and ended up with something black and hard there will still be the same number of atoms. The will be the same too if the energy gained or lost is accounted for. Chemistry studies the interactions of these atoms, sometimes alone but more often combined with (bonded to) other atoms to form and . These atoms interact with other atoms (e.g. a wood is the combination of atoms from the air with the carbon and atoms in the wood) and they also interact with (a photograph is formed from the changes that light causes to the chemicals on a film) and other types of radiation. One surprisingly early finding was that these atoms almost always combine in definite ratios or proportions: silica sand is a structure where the ratio of atoms to oxygen atoms is 2:1. We now know that there are exceptions to this (integrated circuits are a good example). Another key discovery in chemistry was that when a change is made, the amount of energy gained or lost will always be the same. This leads to the important concepts of , , and . The most interesting theory describing all of chemistry is . This theory is complex, , and difficult to master. Often, simpler concepts are used to predict the results of experiments. These concepts (e.g. acid/base chemistry) are limited in scope, but much easier to understand and apply. College students typically study chemistry in the following "blocks": , , , , and . Often, discoveries in chemistry are made by , , or .

Now go back to the table at the top of this page and explore all the topics, one at a time.

What is organic chemistry? 

Organic Chemistry - The study of the element carbon and its compounds including living matter.

Organic Stereochemistry Organic Chemistry Resources Organic Chemistry Terms and Definitions Tutorials Name Reactions Flashcards Organic Laboratory Organic Chemistry Links Organic Compounds Database Organic Chemistry Online Named Reactions Organic Chemistry Software : U. Illinois, Carbondale (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, a means for determining the structure of chemical compounds).
: General
: Overview at Compton's Encyclopedia.
: (Oregeon State University).
: Descriptions of different types of fuel cells.
: From the sci.chem FAQ. Demonstrations
: Demonstrations
 
: Dept. Materials Science, U. Illinois - video clips 

Organic chemistry videos - learn organic chemistry the easy way.

  VHS   

Organic Chemistry Tutorials

Acids and Bases
        |      |      |  

Carbocations    

Curved Arrows    

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles        |  

Formal Charge    

Lewis Dot Structures    

Resonance        |      |  

Stereochemistry    

Organic Stereochemistry:

        |      |      |      |
        |      |  


Organic Chemistry - High School



Organic Chemistry Tutorials

Acids and Bases
        |      |      |  

Carbocations    

Curved Arrows    

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles        |  

Formal Charge    

Lewis Dot Structures    

Resonance        |      |  

Stereochemistry    

        |      |      |      |
        |      |  

: 
The Story of How Chemical Reactivity Emerges From The Periodic Table of The Elements  By: Mark R. Leach 

Chemogenesis is for academic chemists, teachers of chemistry and students of the subject. The material in this web book has been written – and drawn – so that it can be understood by a first year university chemistry major, a bright and interested school student, or a scientifically literate lay person.

The material is intended to be accessible to professional scientists who require a knowledge of chemical reactions and chemical reactivity but who were dazed and confused by the subject at university: physicists, engineers, geologists, biochemists, biologists, medics, etc.


[PDF]

for Chemistry

 

 
















Physical Chemistry

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Generates and displays atomic surfaces based on the Miller indices for body-centered-cubic (bcc) and face-centered-cubic (fcc) packing arrangements. Outputs the atomic coordinates to a file.

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Visualization of the blackbody spectrum and the ability to integrate the spectrum between any two points.

Visualization of 1D, 2D, and 3D brownian motion. includes sample avi movies.

MathCad program and data files for several diatomic molecules. The program plots the electronic states (as Morse potentials) for all the known states with anharmonic constants.

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Analytical solution to the Schrцdinger equation with the harmonic oscillator potential. For two potentials with user-specified constants (mass, re, we), this program plots the potential, wavefunctions, and determines the overlap integral. See also .

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(Russel-Saunders coupling) Determines the diatomic state configurations for all possible arrangements of n electrons in m orbitals assuming strong coupling between the orbital and spin angular momentum.

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The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds.

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Analytical solution to the Schrцdinger equation with the Morse potential. For two potentials with user-specified constants (mass, re, we, wexe), this program plots the potential, wavefunctions, and determines the overlap integral. See also .

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The magnitude of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle at short times. Units of wavelength, wavenumber, frequency, etc.

- For Students and Teachers

Search for science experiments at:




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